Working to an appendix to the fatigue rules

Operators have the choice of how they manage fatigue under Civil Aviation Order 48.1 Instrument 2019 (CAO 48.1).

We provide a set of appendices to CAO 48.1 to guide operators in applying fatigue management rules.

The approach you choose to manage fatigue will define which appendix or appendices you need to apply. They include:

Fatigue at a glance - Which appendices are available to me?
Fatigue at a glance - available appendices
  • Basic limits, available to all – Appendix 1
  • Multi-crew operations (except flight training) – Appendix 2
  • Multi-crew operations (except flight training and complex operations) – Appendix 3
  • Any operations (for single-pilot operations, but available to all) – Appendix 4
  • Ballooning operations – Appendix 4A
  • Medical transport and emergency services – Appendix 4B
  • Aerial work operations (including flight training associated with aerial work) – Appendix 5
  • Aerial work (daylight only), including helicopter mustering – Appendix 5A
  • Flight training – Appendix 6
  • Fatigue Risk Management System (FRMS), available to all – Appendix 7.

Applicable to all appendices:

  • General / Conditions on Air Operator’s Certificate / Limits and requirements– Parts 1, 2 and 3 of CAO 48.1
  • Operator obligations – Subsection 14 of CAO 48.1 (all operations).

Only applicable to Appendices 2 to 6:

  • Additional operator obligations – Subsection 15 of CAO 48.1.

Applying the appendices

Basic limits – Appendix 1

This appendix sets prescriptive flight and duty time limitations without the need for risk management processes or fatigue training. These limitations are relatively restrictive.

Find out how to apply Appendix 1 Fatigue management rules.

Enhanced fatigue management – Appendix 2 to 6

These appendices allow greater flexibility with less restrictive flight and duty time limitations, but require operators to have:

  • risk management processes
  • continuous monitoring processes
  • an initial and recurrent fatigue training program for pilots, managers and anyone involved in rostering decisions.

The specific appendices include:

  • Appendix 2 - Complex multi-crew operations
  • Appendix 3 - Non-complex multi-crew operations
  • Appendix 4 - Single pilot or any other operation
  • Appendix 4A - Ballooning operations
  • Appendix 4B - Medical transport and emergency services
  • Appendix 5 - Aerial work operations
  • Appendix 5A - Aerial work (daylight only)
  • Appendix 6 - Flight training.

Find out how to apply Appendices 2 to 6.

Appendix 2 to 6 with variation

We allow operators to vary the application of appendices 2 to 6 in certain circumstances. Usually when operations fall slightly outside the restrictions but not enough to demand a flexible, performance-based Fatigue Risk Management System (Appendix 7).

Find out how to apply Appendices 2 to 6 with a minor variation.

Fatigue Risk Management System (FRMS) – Appendix 7

A Fatigue Risk Management System (FRMS) is a data-driven means of continuously monitoring and managing fatigue-related safety risks. This employs scientific principles and knowledge, and operational experience. It aims to ensure relevant personnel are performing at adequate levels of alertness.

Find out more about Fatigue Risk Management Systems and how to apply for FRMS approval (Appendix 7).

Fixed Wing Aerial Application Operations

Under section 11 of CAO 48.1 (2019) the CAO does not apply to operators conducting aerial application operations in aeroplanes. This is in compliance with CASR Subpart 137.Q.

Last updated:
16 Mar 2022
Online version available at:
Back to top of page