Gaining a Part 91 approval

Part 91 of the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998 (CASR) General Flight Rules is a consolidated regulatory set.

It provides a streamlined approval mechanism for those previously done under numerous sets of Civil Aviation Regulations (CAR) and Civil Aviation Orders (CAO). These approvals are for operations that are not generally approved in the general flight rules.

See Part 91 General Operating and Flight Rules for more information and resources that support the application information.

Air display approval

If you are planning to advertise your flying display open to the public, you will need approval from us.

You do not need approval for events that do not invite the public to attend, such as a local aero club fly-in.

When assessing your application, we will consider the safety of pilots and spectators.

An air display can be:

  • multiple aircraft display
  • single aircraft display
  • a flypast
  • a fly-in.

See the AC 91-21 - Air displays for detailed definitions.

Details required for an application

You can find details on how to apply for an air display approval in the Air Display Administration and Procedures Manual.

Your application must include:

  • detailed display instructions
  • a detailed program of events
  • display pilot approvals and details
  • where you will hold display
  • a risk assessment
  • your emergency response plan.

Performance-based navigation (PBN)

Advances in navigation technology and performance have changed various part of the industry, including:

  • airspace design
  • separation minima
  • route spacing
  • airport access
  • instrument procedure design
  • air traffic management.

These changes played a major part in modernising Australia's airspace system. These advancements also deliver improvements in safety and operational efficiency.

The aviation industry's transitioned away from navigation reliant on ground-based navaids, such as:

  • VHF omnidirectional range (VOR)
  • non-directional beacon (NDB).

In recent times, the industry is adopting area navigation using the ICAO performance-based navigation (PBN) framework. This change has been a key enabler of this modernisation.

Please review Advisory Circular-91-05 Performance Based Navigation for more information, including the approval process.

Navigation authorisations required

We are only required to issue specific approval for operations under the Required Navigation Performance Authorisation Required (RNP-AR) navigation specifications. You can find this outlined in the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) RNP-AR Procedure Design Manual.

Operator seeking the following navigation authorisations need approval from us:


Low visibility operations

Part 91.D.5 of the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998 (CASR) establishes take-off and landing minima in Australia. These regulations permit us to determine the meteorological minima for landing or take-off.

The Part 91 Manual of Standards (MOS) sets out the various minima. The Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP) reflects these minima.

We set the minima for broad use by pilots and aircraft operators without the need for specific approval. These 'standard' minima are currently known as:

  • landing: not less than standard precision approach category I (CAT I) minima (200 ft DH, 550 m RVR/800 m visibility)
  • take-off: visibility not less than 550 m.

For operators wishing to conduct operations with lower minima (for example, low visibility operations [LVO]), we may grant approval under regulation 91.045 of CASR for the provisions applicable to 91.445. This is consistent with international practice, which requires operators to have specific approval to conduct both:

  • instrument approaches with minima less than CAT I
  • low-visibility take-offs.

We will approve Australian and foreign-registered aircraft to conduct LVOs within Australia by:

  • granting an approval under regulation 91.045
  • inclusion of the approval on the AOC OPS Spec.

Note: regulation 91.020 specifies that Part 91 of CASR does not apply to certain foreign-registered aircraft. We provide more guidance for foreign operators.

Australian operators intending to conduct LVO in another country will need the following:

  • A copy of the Ops Spec carried on board, showing the LVO specific approval issued by us.
  • Where applicable, an approval from the applicable foreign regulatory authority to conduct the relevant LVO, including:
    • for landing operations: a statement confirming the aerodrome and runway terrain details and charts, including the calculations used to determine the applicable minima.
    • if issued: a copy of the operations specification (OPS SPEC), or equivalent approval, from the foreign National Aviation Authority (NAA) for LVO.

Generalist approvals under Part 91

You can use the application form for additional operations approvals required under Part 91. These include approval to:

  • pick up or set down people or things during flight
  • carry persons on or in that part of the aircraft or thing during flight
  • fly in formation at night
  • fly in formation in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC)
  • tow a thing during flight
  • fly below minimum height rules
  • conduct a VFR flight in Class A Airspace
  • lower performance category at an aerodrome
  • carry cargo: obstruction, or restricted access to emergency exit
  • simulate engine failure in multi engine aeroplane: certificated to carry more than 9 passengers but not exceeding 19 if there is no simulator in Australia
  • simulate engine failure in multi engine aeroplane: certificated to carry more than 19 passengers if there is no simulator in Australia or a recognised National Aviation Authority in a foreign country for aeroplane type.
Last updated:
7 Mar 2024
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