Part 91 of CASR General operating and flight rules

Rule status

Current

New basic operating rules for all pilots commenced on 2 December 2021. 

Part 91 of the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations (CASR) – General operating and flight rules, sets out the general operating rules for all pilots and operators. It consolidates all of the general operating and flight rules for Australian aircraft.

The rules cover:

  • documentation
  • flight crew and operator obligations
  • training
  • crew member obligations
  • safety of persons and cargo
  • classifications of operation
  • rules to prevent collision
  • communication
  • fuel
  • pre-flight planning and preparation
  • ground operations
  • aircraft performance and weight and balance
  • take-off and landing
  • cruising levels and minimum heights
  • navigation
  • non-controlled aerodromes
  • icing
  • special flight operations
  • aircraft equipment
  • special certificates and permits
  • foreign aircraft
  • minimum equipment list
  • equipment.

Transition to new regulations

We have compiled information and resources about transitioning to the new regulations. Visit our Flight operations transition section to find out more. 

Who it affects

Part 91 applies to all aviation operations except drones. 

There are additional rules for pilots operating under an Air Operator's Certificate (AOC) or other certificate, or those conducting defined activities such as aerial work, aerial application and some recreational aviation activities. These rules are in other CASR Parts and may add to or turn off some Part 91 requirements – either completely or partially. 

Legislative instruments

Legislative instruments include exemptions to particular regulatory requirements in aviation regulations or a Manual of Standards, but which apply to a broad range of persons. Instruments related to this part will display in this space or you can view our list of legislative instruments.

8 legislative instruments available

Guidance material

Advisory material provides advice and guidance to explain particular regulatory requirements of a CASR Part. Guidance material relating to this part will appear in this space or you can view all our guidance material.

26 guidance material available

Acceptable means of compliance and guidance material (AMC/GMs) for Part 91 for general operating and flight rules.

Advisory Circular AC 91-25 provides guidance on procedures and practices to ensure the safety of fuelling operations.

Advisory Circular, Flight ops - General resource AC 91-25

CAAP 257-EX-01 provides information about the processes and requirements for gaining approval to conduct LVO.

Civil Aviation Advisory Publication CAAP 257-EX-01

Advisory circular AC 91-12 provides guidance on the conduct of practice autoland operations on CAT I runways, or on CAT II/III runways that are not subject to Air Traffic Control (ATC) protection of relevant instrument landing system (ILS) critical and sensitive areas.

Advisory Circular AC 91-12

The purpose of Advisory Circular AC 91-18 is to provide information on the use of child restraint systems by infants, children, and special categories of passengers.

Advisory Circular, Flight ops - General resource AC 91-18

Multi-Part Advisory Circular AC 91-19, AC 121-04, AC 133-10, AC 135-12 and AC 138-10 provides guidance regarding the requirements for safety briefing cards and passenger safety briefings, instructions and demonstrations for operations.

Advisory Circular Multi-Part AC 91-19, AC 121-04, AC 133-10, AC 135-12 and AC 138-10

If you have an Australian registered aircraft and intend to operate overseas, the Performance-based navigation advice for National Aviation Authorities is available. It demonstrates you meet the Australian regulatory requirements in case of a ramp check by a foreign National Aviation Authority.

Advisory Circular AC 1-02 provides information to the aviation industry, detailing the requirements to have and maintain an exposition or operations manual to meet the regulatory requirements of CASR and the MOS.

Advisory Circular, Flight ops - General resource AC 1-02

Advisory Circular AC 91-28 provides information and guidance to operators and their crew members regarding CASR Subpart 91.525 to assist with establish procedures, crew coordination and communication regarding turbulence management.

Advisory Circular AC 91-28

Multi-Part Advisory Circular 91-13, AC 133-09 and AC 138-06 provides guidance on the conduct of helicopter operations using NVIS. This publication supports and expands upon the content of Civil Aviation Safety Regulation (CASR) Part 91, Part 133 and Part 138 and relevant Manual of Standards (MOS).

Advisory Circular Multi-Part AC 91-13, AC 133-09 and AC 138-06

Advisory Circular AC 1-03 provides advice on CASR regulations pertaining the flight operations. They include Parts 91, 119, 121,133, 135 and 138 of CASR, specifically for those transitioning to these regulations on 2 December 2021.

Advisory Circular, Flight ops - General resource AC 1-03

Advisory Circular 91-02 provides guidance to assist pilots when determining the suitability for an aeroplane to safely take off and land. It details an overview of the pilot’s responsibilities.

Advisory Circular, Flight ops - General resource AC 91-02

Advisory Circular AC 91-07 provides operator guidance in relation to cabin electronic flight bags, extracts of which have been taken from International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) Doc 10111 Manual on the Implementation and Use of Cabin Electronic Flight Bags.

Advisory Circular AC 91-07

The purpose of this Advisory Circular AC 91-03 is to provide information that will assist pilots and operators in understanding the requirements for the carriage of assistance animals.

Advisory Circular AC 91-03

Advisory Circular AC 91-17 provides information and guidance in the use of Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) as a replacement for paper in the aircraft.

Advisory Circular AC 91-17

Advisory Circular AC 91-29 - This AC provides guidance to assist pilots in assessing the suitability of a place for a helicopter to safely take off and land.

Advisory Circular AC 91-29

Advisory Circular AC 91-15 provides information on fuel requirements for aircraft that are being used to conduct Part 91 operations.

Advisory Circular AC 91-15

Advisory Circular AC 91-10 provides guidance on procedures that, when followed, will improve situational awareness and safety for all pilots when flying at, or in the vicinity of, non-controlled aerodromes.

Advisory Circular AC 91-10

Advisory Circular AC 91-16 provides foundational information on wake vortex behaviour, alert pilots to the hazards of aircraft wake turbulence and to outline recommended operational procedures to avoid or manage wake turbulence encounters.

Advisory Circular AC 91-16

Advisory Circular AC 91-06 explains the basic principles of PBCS and the way it relates to the flight planning and operations.

Advisory Circular, Flight ops - General resource AC 91-06

Advisory Circular AC 91-22 provides guidance on establishing and using aircraft checklists.

Advisory Circular AC 91-22

Advisory Circular AC 91-29 provides guidance to assist pilots in assessing the suitability of a place for a helicopter to safely take off and land.

Advisory Circular AC 91-29

Advisory Circular AC 91-23 provides advice to aircraft owners and pilots about enhancing their situational awareness during flight through the use of Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) technology.

Advisory Circular AC 91-23

Advisory circular AC 91-14 provides advice for pilots on collision avoidance through the 'see and avoid' principle. It also covers the use of radio to maintain separation in the air through ‘alerted see-and-avoid’.

Advisory Circular AC 91-14

Advisory Circular AC 91-05 v1.0 - Performance-based navigation provides information on the concept of performance-based navigation and guidance on navigation specifications used in Australia.

Advisory Circular AC 91-05

CAAP 181A-1 provides guidance on RVSM operations, including comprehensive information on gaining airworthiness and operational approvals. It is for Australian aircraft owners, operators and flight crew, enabling them to conduct operations safely.

Civil Aviation Advisory Publication CAAP 181A-1

Supporting resources

Supporting resources related to this part will appear in this space. These are used in conjunction to support the formal guidance material listed above.

14 supporting resources available

This document lists regulations from Parts 91 and 138 of CASR against CAO subsections, together with the location of requirements (if any) in the Manuals of Standards for Parts 91 and 138.

This document is intended to assist operators and persons who will conduct operations under Part 91 of CASR to prioritise their actions to transition to the new flight operations regulations.

Impact of new flight operations regulations on flight crew licencing exams. The introduction of the new flight operations regulations on 2 December 2021 will mean changes to the various flight crew licensing (FCL) theory exams.

This document provides a guide to where provisions of the Civil Aviation Regulations 1988 (CAR), as they would relate to Part 131 aircraft operations, have been incorporated into Parts 91 and 131 of the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998 (CASR).

This document has been developed to assist pilots and operators transition from the existing general operating and flight rules to those that commence on 2 December 2021. It provides a guide to where provisions of the Civil Aviation Regulations 1988 (CAR) have been incorporated into Part 91 of the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998 (CASR).

This document provides a guide to where provisions of the Civil Aviation Orders, as they would relate to Part 131 aircraft operations, have been incorporated into Parts 91 and 131 of the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998 (CASR).

This document has been developed to assist pilots and operators transition from the existing general operating and flight rules to those that commence on 2 December 2021. It provides a guide to where provisions of the Civil Aviation Orders (CAOs) that relate to flight operations have been incorporated into Part 91 of the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998 (CASR).

Use this form to provide your Post Display Report and advise of any safety occurrences or details that relate to the oversight and running of the event.

Use this form to apply to conduct an air display which includes a single ship display, fly-in competition, cross country event or fly-past with an open invitation to the general public to attend.

Use this form to apply for an initial issue, renewal of, or changes to general approvals issued under Part 91 of Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998 (CASR).

Use this form to provide details for the initial issue, renewal or variation of the North Atlantic high-level airspace (NATHLA) approval.

The document supports the commencement of the flight operations regulations and represents the definitions from across the legislative suite as it will appear when those rules commence on 02 December 2021.

Use this form to apply for approvals under Part 91 for a minimum equipment list (MEL) for a particular type and model of aircraft. You can also request extensions of rectification intervals for existing MEL items.

This document lists regulations from Parts 91 and 138 of CASR against provisions in Parts 7 to 19 of CAR, together with the location of requirements (if any) in the Manuals of Standards for Parts 91 and 138.

Date published:
Online version available at: https://www.casa.gov.au//search-centre/rules/part-91-casr-general-operating-and-flight-rules
Back to top of page