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Testing of safety-sensitive personnel for alcohol and other drugs - Answers to common questions

Answers to common questions

Why is drug and alcohol testing being done?

  • Q: Will there be legislation to enforce testing? Will there be a change to CAR 256?
  • Q: Is this just another case of big brother prying into my private life?
  • Q: I do not believe AOD has a large accident factor?
  • Q: Why not catch and sack these people?
  • Q: Isn't this just another example of CASA trying to catch people out?
  • Q: Are there any other programs worldwide that we can learn from?

Who will be tested?

  • Q: You said 'safety-sensitive personnel' are to be tested. Am I one of them?
  • Q: What about a private pilot who lives in the bush. We all share the same airspace.
  • Q: What about protective services (AFP, Customs, etc). Are they to be tested?
  • Q: Will workshops that manufacture an aeronautical product be subject to an AOD Program?
  • Q: Will foreign airlines' personnel be subject to testing?
  • Q: I believe all people should be tested? Why are CASA people exempt from this?
  • Q: Will there be a process whereby licence holders are to be tested as a part of a renewal?
  • Q: Will various organisations have to have their own policy and program?
  • Q: Are contractors to be randomly tested only?

Where will testing be done?

  • Q: Under 'Option 2', you say that private pilots may be tested. How will this happen at non-licensed airfields?
  • Q: If an aircraft is operating away from an airport, what will define a safety-sensitive function?
  • Q: The chances of being tested randomly are very remote. Will it be effective?
  • Q: I work for an operator who conducts work in the Antarctic. How will random testing work there?

How will the testing be done?

  • Q: What type of testing will be done?
  • Q: How accurate are the drug tests?
  • Q: I am very concerned unnecessary positive tests will occur if using urine because of the large window of detection.
  • Q: Will it be easier to maintain the integrity of the saliva test over the urine test?
  • Q: I am concerned and it seems unfair that testing for cannabis using urine could show a positive result some 30 days after use when I am obviously not impaired. Why not use saliva testing which has a much shorter window of detection?
  • Q: What will CASA do if someone refuses a test? What penalty will result?
  • Q: I am concerned that seeing a pilot being tested will cause alarm to passengers and may embarrass the pilot?

Who will be doing the testing?

  • Q: Who is going to do this testing?
  • Q: Why can't we use our own tester for random testing?
  • Q: How will organisations report testing outcomes to CASA?
  • Q: What are the qualifications of the testers?
  • Q: Who is going to employ the Independent Testing Providers?
  • Q: How will random testing be conducted for private operations?
  • Q: I want to do the testing myself and get the Government to reimburse me. Can this be done?

How soon will testing start?

  • Q: When will all this start? Is CASA able to implement this quickly?
  • Q: What is the timeframe for a decision on which testing option will be used?

Training for employers

  • Q: I am far too busy to design an AOD Program. How will I get help to do this?
  • Q: Will CASA consider putting together a web-based program or CD to give educational and training material for employers?
  • Q: For small operators, when will training occur?
  • Q: My question relates to the mandatory pre-employment testing by operators: if an operator is situated in a remote area and seasonal activity requires fast recruitment, won't this cause unnecessary delays?
  • Q: What organisations will be required to have an AOD Program?
  • Q: We have an AOD Program in place at the moment. Can my business retain it?
  • Q: My company has a 'no drinking' policy that prevents employees drinking whilst they are on tour. If an employee breaches the company's requirement, what will be CASA's actions?
  • Q: I have a worldwide Air Operator's Certificate. What will happen to my overseas workers?

'Acceptable' alcohol and drug use

  • Q: I'm taking medication I got from a pharmacist/doctor - will that show up on a drug test? Do I need to tell my employer?
  • Q: As a pilot, I adhere to the 8-hour rule, but how long can alcohol affect you after this?
  • Q: How long does it take from when I use a drug to when I'm safe to go to work?
  • Q: What will be the maximum BAC for an employee in a safety-sensitive role?
  • Q: I am concerned that a BAC of 0.02% is still too high.
  • Q: Why not have a BAC of 0.05% such as on the roads?
  • Q: What would be the penalties for a BAC >0.02%? Would CASA prosecute a pilot who tests greater than 0.02% BAC?
  • Q: If the cut-off level for alcohol is 0.02%, what will it be for illicit drugs?
  • Q: Can you confirm the saliva testing standard will be published in February 2007? Will the standard cover on-site testing?

Questions about specific drugs

  • Q: There is an impairment issue for flight crew and tobacco use. Why isn't this being considered in AOD Programs?
  • Q: You mentioned a lot about alcohol and illicit drugs. What about prescription drugs?
  • Q: Is there a generic list of effects for over-the-counter medication, i.e. what can't I safely take?
  • Q: Are you testing for dextromethorphine?
  • Q: Why are you not testing for LSD?
  • Q: Would use of cough syrup cause an indication higher than 0.02% BAC?
  • Q: If I use cannibis, will I test positive the next day? How quickly will cannibis be excreted from the system?
  • Q: Do tests give the amount of cannibis consumed?
  • Q: Will passive cannibis smoking cause a positive test?

Test results

  • Q: What will happen to me if I return a positive test?
  • Q: How long before I can come back to work if I return a positive test?
  • Q: If a prescribed substance is picked up during a screening test that returns a confirmed negative result, how long will I have to wait to clear my name?
  • Q: What if a pilot tests positive to alcohol in a remote area? How will the confirmatory test be conducted?
  • Q: What about the stigma of being tested positive in a remote area before a negative confirmatory test?
  • Q: I'm concerned about the length of time it will take between a screening test and a confirmatory test.
  • Q: I am concerned that I may be tested falsely positive and this may impact on my reputation?
  • Q: I returned a positive test, but I haven't taken any drugs. What does this mean?
  • Q: If I return a positive test, who gets told about it?
  • Q: Who in CASA will know about my positive test?
  • Q: What if I fly for an airline, go on holiday, and get tested positive in a private operation. Will my employer need to know?
  • Q: Would CASA take any action on a screening positive test?
  • Q: What if a person pops a codeine, then tests positive?
  • Q: What protections will I have in regard to a false screening positive test?
  • Q: Is it a non-punitive testing policy that is being proposed?

Action against offenders

  • Q: What disciplinary action will be taken by CASA?
  • Q: Will police get involved?
  • Q: Would a criminal conviction result after two positive tests?
  • Q: Do we have the opportunity to assist a person who tests positive for a pre-employment test?
  • Q: What is CASA's position with a pilot who becomes rehabilitated?

Who is funding this process?

  • Q: Who will fund this exercise?
  • Q: What about the costs incurred to test private pilots?
  • Q: What are the costs associated with testing if the government does not fund this?
  • Q: I work for a small organisation. We cannot afford to set up an AOD Program.
  • Q: Will CASA charge to approve an AOD Program?
  • Q: Who pays for the test under 'Option 1'?

Where can I get more information?

  • Q: Where can I get more information?

Why is drug and alcohol testing being done?

Q: Will there be legislation to enforce testing? Will there be a change to CAR 256?

CASA'S response (November 2006): Yes, there will be a change to the legislation to enable this and it is likely there will be a change to the Civil Aviation Act as well.

Q: Is this just another case of big brother prying into my private life?

CASA'S reponse (August 2006): An employer and fellow employees have the right to not be working in a hazardous area with someone who is impaired. The methods of testing employees on the job will specifically target the presence of the parent drug (i.e. recent use). Comprehensive CASA education forums and information material will allow employees to make informed lifestyle choices.

A recent forum on alcohol and illicit drug use showed our society has major challenges in managing the problem of alcohol and other drug use and subsequent workplace impairment. Evidence shows it is far more prevalent than first thought. You or your immediate peers may not have a problem, but the safety of your flight depends on many other individuals as well.

Q: I do not believe AOD has a large accident factor?

CASA'S response (November 2006): The statistics show a large number of pilots self-report that they go to work impaired.

Q: Why not catch and sack these people?

CASA'S response (November 2006): Experienced aviation personnel can be difficult to find, however, this is a question of an industrial nature.

Q: Isn't this just another example of CASA trying to catch people out?

CASA'S response (December 2006): Not at all. CASA is only interested that people no longer perform a safety-sensitive function until they test negative.

Q: Are there any other programs worldwide that we can learn from?

CASA'S response (November 2006): Yes. We are one of the last countries to commit to this. We favour a harm minimisation approach, as found in the United Kingdom and Canada.

Who will be tested?

Q: You said 'safety-sensitive personnel' are to be tested. Am I one of them?

CASA'S response (January 2007):   'Safety-sensitive personnel' are everyone who goes airside who are not passengers. This also includes people working in safety-sensitive roles.

Q: What about a private pilot who lives in the bush. We all share the same airspace.

CASA'S response (November 2006):   They may be subject to random testing.

Q: What about protective services (AFP, Customs, etc). Are they to be tested?

CASA'S response (December 2006):   Yes.

Q: Will workshops that manufacture an aeronautical product be subject to an AOD Program?

CASA'S response (January 2007):   It is likely they will be as these people work in safety-sensitive roles.

Q: Will foreign airlines' personnel be subject to testing?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   All safety-sensitive personnel airside on Australian soil will be subject to testing. That is our intention at present if 'Option 2' is agreed to.

Q: I believe all people should be tested? Why are CASA people exempt from this?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   CASA inspectors or others who work airside will not be exempt. Other employees will not be tested at this stage.

Q: Will there be a process whereby licence holders are to be tested as a part of a renewal?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   Not at this stage.

Q: Will various organisations have to have their own policy and program?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   Under the existing options, yes.

Q: Are contractors to be randomly tested only?

CASA'S response (December 2006): One option being considered at the moment is for contractors operating airside to become part of the AOD Program of their employer.

Where will testing be done?

Q: Under 'Option 2', you say that private pilots may be tested. How will this happen at non-licensed airfields?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   In the interests of air safety, random testing cannot be excluded from anywhere, provided access can be obtained.

Q: If an aircraft is operating away from an airport, what will define a safety-sensitive function?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   An operator may need to review, with reasonable foreseeability, the propensity for a safety-related function for personnel operating in close proximity to an off-airfield positioned aircraft.

Q: The chances of being tested randomly are very remote. Will it be effective?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   That is why testing is only one component or strategy of a comprehensive program.

Q: I work for an operator who conducts work in the Antarctic. How will random testing work there?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   Of course there are limitations as to where random testing can be conducted. We are not excluding any area. All other forms of testing will apply to you though.

How will the testing be done?

Q: What type of testing will be done?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   It is likely urine and saliva tests will be used, but this depends on the technology.

Q: How accurate are the drug tests?

CASA'S response (August 2006):   The rate of false-positives from urine drug tests is relatively low. A false-positive can occur when another substance mimics the effect of the targeted substance on the drug test. The test then shows 'positive' even though the target drug is absent. False-positive results may occur after using antihistamines, certain anti-inflammatory drugs, cold and flu medications, and poppy seeds. The rate of false-negatives from urine drug tests is higher. False-negatives occur when a person uses a drug and the concentration of the drug in the sample taken is lower than the test cut-off level.

Q: I am very concerned unnecessary positive tests will occur if using urine because of the large window of detection.

CASA'S response (November 2006):   That is why we are monitoring the situation with saliva testing.

Q: Will it be easier to maintain the integrity of the saliva test over the urine test?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   Any testing conducted will be in accordance with the Australian Standard. This will ensure the integrity of the test is maintained.

Q: I am concerned and it seems unfair that testing for cannabis using urine could show a positive result some 30 days after use when I am obviously not impaired. Why not use saliva testing which has a much shorter window of detection?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   CASA has reserved a decision on what testing matrix will be used for which type of test (i.e. random, pre-employment, reasonable suspicion, etc). It is likely that both types of testing will be used.

Q: What will CASA do if someone refuses a test? What penalty will result?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   This is the same as if someone tests positive. If the person is an employee and is subject to an AOD Program, then the Program will describe what happens.

Q: I am concerned that seeing a pilot being tested will cause alarm to passengers and may embarrass the pilot?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   There is general community acceptance for testing. It has been used on our roads for some time now. The test likely to be used will be saliva testing which is non-intrusive and it is also likely that the pilot will not be tested in front of anyone.

Who will be doing the testing?

Q: Who is going to do this testing?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   It is likely that an Independent Testing Provider (ITP) will do this function. It may also be possible that some larger organisations may have their own personnel to do the tests.

Q: Why can't we use our own tester for random testing?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   Most people talked to so far seem to prefer an Independent Testing Provider so that prejudice does not come into question. Larger operators may conduct in-house testing via their own personnel, but it is envisaged small operators will use an ITP.

Q: How will organisations report testing outcomes to CASA?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   The Independent Testing Providers will provide this information through a secure means.

Q: What are the qualifications of the testers?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   Training will be required for screening testers. Qualifications would be in accordance with the Australian Standard for the confirmatory tests.

Q: Who is going to employ the Independent Testing Providers?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   One option is that the government will. Another is that, if the organisation is large enough, it will.

Q: How will random testing be conducted for private operations?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   It is likely that Independent Testing Providers will provide this service and it is likely that a private pilot will be tested once he or she accesses airside.

Q: I want to do the testing myself and get the Government to reimburse me. Can this be done?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   No decision has been made on this yet.

How soon will testing start?

Q: When will all this start? Is CASA able to implement this quickly?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   It is likely that the law will be enacted in 2007, with a gradual phase-in 6 to 12 months after that.

Q: What is the timeframe for a decision on which testing option will be used?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   We have no clear indication, but as soon as possible.

Training for employers

Q: I am far too busy to design an AOD Program. How will I get help to do this?

CASA'S response (August 2006):   CASA will provide an Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC), guidance material (GM), and a template which will enable an operator to tailor a system relevant to the size of their business or organisation.

Q: Will CASA consider putting together a web-based program or CD to give educational and training material for employers?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   Yes, we will be considering this.

Q: For small operators, when will training occur?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   Usually upon induction.

Q: My Qrelates to the mandatory pre-employment testing by operators: if an operator is situated in a remote area and seasonal activity requires fast recruitment, won't this cause unnecessary delays?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   It may cause delays.

Q: What organisations will be required to have an AOD Program?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   Airports, air traffic control, holders of Air Operator's Certificates, and holders of Certificates of Approval for a start, but it may be that any organisation routinely working airside may also have to have a Program.

Q: We have an AOD Program in place at the moment. Can my business retain it?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   In all likelihood, if it addresses all the key areas, then yes you can.

Q: My company has a 'no drinking' policy that prevents employees drinking whilst they are on tour. If an employee breaches the company's requirement, what will be CASA's actions?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   If an employer is more restrictive in its approach than that required by legislation, that becomes an issue between the employee and employer.

Q: I have a worldwide Air Operator's Certificate. What will happen to my overseas workers?

CASA'S response (December 2006):   They will still be a part of your organisation's AOD Program. Of course, as they work overseas, they will not be captured within the random testing regime whilst overseas.

'Acceptable' alcohol and drug use

Q: I'm taking medication I got from a pharmacist/doctor — will that show up on a drug test? Do I need to tell my employer?

CASA'S response (August 2006):   Some over-the-counter (OTC) or prescribed products may show up on a drug test - this is called a false-positive because it is a substance other than the targeted substance that is indicated. The rate of false-positives in urine testing is low. Appropriate confirmatory testing with metabolite quantification is conducted to safeguard against false-positives. It is expected that those employees who fulfil a safety-sensitive role (i.e. work airside) will have to obtain medical advice for prescriptive medication and discuss any implications with their employer. OTC medication carries advice that must be considered relative to the task.

Q: As a pilot, I adhere to the 8-hour rule, but how long can alcohol affect you after this?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   This depends on many factors: gender, how much, how rapidly consumed, and you should also consider the hangover effect.

Q: How long does it take from when I use a drug to when I'm safe to go to work?

CASA'S response (August 2006):   This varies enormously, depending on the drug you have taken, the amount you have taken, the method by which you took the drug, and individual factors such as body weight, tolerance, and your general state of health. For instance, hangover effects from alcohol can continue to impair your coordination and decision-making for several hours after you have returned to a blood alcohol concentration of 0.0.

Q: What will be the maximum BAC for an employee in a safety-sensitive role?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   0.02% BAC, but the 8-hour rule for pilots may still apply and it will be desirable that persons performing a safety-sensitive function will have no alcohol in their system and that they will not be impaired through previous alcohol use (hangover).

Q: I am concerned that a BAC of 0.02% is still too high.

CASA'S response (November 2006):   The education and training process will explain to safety-sensitive personnel that this allowance is not for the purpose of permitting a drink. It is to allow some leeway for testing aberrations and for consumption of some cough syrups.

Q: Why not have a BAC of 0.05% such as on the roads?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   Some segments of the transport industry have a 0% requirement. The Grand Rapids Study shows that it is likely that persons will have twice as high an accident probability rate at 0.05% BAC. CASA desires to reduce this risk to as low as possible.

Q: What would be the penalties for a BAC >0.02%? Would CASA prosecute a pilot who tests greater than 0.02% BAC?

CASA'S response (January 2007):   This will depend very much on the circumstances involved. A company's AOD Program will give guidance on its intended action. In the first instance, CASA's main interest is in the removal of the person from the safety-sensitive function.

Q: If the cut-off level for alcohol is 0.02%, what will it be for illicit drugs?

CASA'S response (January 2007):   Existing drug testing standards determine the cut-off levels.

Q: Can you confirm the saliva testing standard will be published in February 2007? Will the standard cover on-site testing?

CASA'S response (January 2007):   The standard has already been made (AS 4760-2006). And yes, on-site testing should be the same as AS/NZS 4308:2001.

Questions about specific drugs

Q: There is an impairment issue for flight crew and tobacco use. Why isn't this being considered in AOD Programs?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   Excessive use of tobacco will present as a condition during pilot medicals.

Q: You mentioned a lot about alcohol and illicit drugs. What about prescription drugs?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   Yes, prescription drugs need to be considered just as equally as any other kind of drug.

Q: Is there a generic list of effects for over-the-counter medication, i.e. what can't I safely take?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   There is no list that we are aware of, and you will need to discuss with your pharmacist or medical practioner what you are taking, together with the type of work activity you are performing.

Q: Are you testing for dextromethorphine?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   No, this is not a drug of interest at present.

Q: Why are you not testing for LSD?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   The levels of use are very low at present, but they may be reviewed, so please include this in your response to the NPRM.

Q: Would use of cough syrup cause an indication higher than 0.02% BAC?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   If enough was taken, and this would probably be much greater than a therapeutic dose. The cut-off for alcohol is greater than zero to make allowance for this.

Q: If I use cannibis, will I test positive the next day? How quickly will cannibis be excreted from the system?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   If a urine test is used, and your intake is sufficient, then the answer is Yes. If a saliva test is used, then it is likely that you will not test positive. Excretion rates vary enormously, depending on the person's physiology and how much is consumed, and metabolites can continue to be excreted for up to 30 days after consumption.

Q: Do tests give the amount of cannibis consumed?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   No, but they tell you how much is present in the sample tests.

Q: Will passive cannibis smoking cause a positive test?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   There is a remote possibility that if someone is exposed to a large amount of passive cannibis smoke that this may occur, but it is not likely.

Test results

Q: What will happen to me if I return a positive test?

CASA'S response (August 2006):   This depends on the situation when the test was made. For example, if the test was returned positive from a pre-employment screening, then it is unlikely employment will occur. If the test occurred when you were airside, then the most important course of action will be for the employer to remove you from a hazardous situation immediately. Future action will depend on the circumstances. CASA is only interested that you no longer perform a safety-sensitive function until you test negative.

Q: How long before I can come back to work if I return a positive test?

CASA'S response (August 2006):   Not until you are no longer under the influence of alcohol or other drugs. This may involve re-testing.

Q: If a prescribed substance is picked up during a screening test that returns a confirmed negative result, how long will I have to wait to clear my name?

CASA'S response (January 2007):   This depends on the distance you are from the lab where that B sample testing takes place. It is reasonable to expect this process to take a few days.

Q: What if a pilot tests positive to alcohol in a remote area? How will the confirmatory test be conducted?

CASA'S response (January 2007):   The pilot will need to be removed from the safety-sensitive role. The confirmatory test will be conducted in accordance with the AS/NZS standard.

Q: What about the stigma of being tested positive in a remote area before a negative confirmatory test?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   Privacy aspects will apply to an operator's AOD Program.

Q: I'm concerned about the length of time it will take between a screening test and a confirmatory test.

CASA'S response (January 2007):   An operator can conduct an additional screening test at a later time to permit airside access.

Q: I am concerned that I may be tested falsely positive and this may impact on my reputation?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   The only action that is taken after a positive screening test is that you will be removed from the safety-sensitive role. It may be that you have falsely tested positive because you are taking other medication legally and you have self-reported this to your employer. This will lessen the likelihood of embarrassment until the confirmatory test is returned.

Q: I returned a positive test, but I haven't taken any drugs. What does this mean?

CASA'S response (August 2006):   It is possible that false-positives can be recorded. A false-positive can occur on a drug test when another substance mimics the effect of the targeted substance. The test then shows 'positive' even though the target drug is absent. False-positive results may occur after using antihistamines, certain anti-inflammatory drugs, cold and flu medications, and poppy seeds. The rate of false-positives in urine testing is low. Appropriate confirmatory testing with metabolite quantification is conducted to safeguard against false-positives.

Q: If I return a positive test, who gets told about it?

CASA'S response (August 2006):   The Commonwealth Privacy Act 1988 applies to all employees who test positive. It is expected that - apart from Designated Medical Examiners or Medical Review Officers - company managers and/or authorised persons will know.

Q: Who in CASA will know about my positive test?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   This will be very much on a need-to-know basis.

Q: What if I fly for an airline, go on holiday, and get tested positive in a private operation. Will my employer need to know?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   To answer that question properly, we would need to know all the circumstances. CASA may take enforcement action.

Q: Would CASA take any action on a screening positive test?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   No. If any action was indicated, CASA will only do so in accordance with natural justice principles.

Q: What if a person pops a codeine, then tests positive?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   This is a remote possibility, but if you did have a headache on the day you were randomly selected, you would be temporarily removed from your safety-sensitive function until you tested negative or the confirmatory test was returned.

Q: What protections will I have in regard to a false screening positive test?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   The confirmatory test is far more specific and will also show whether or not the test was positive as a result of taking an over-the-counter drug such as pseudoephedrine.

Q: Is it a non-punitive testing policy that is being proposed?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   This will be a workplace issue and the handling of this will be clearly stated in the company's AOD Program. In addition to this, and very much depending on the actual circumstances, there may be further action taken by CASA.

Action against offenders

Q: What disciplinary action will be taken by CASA?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   A graduated process is most likely.

Q: Will police get involved?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   In day-to-day random operations, it is very unlikely that police will become involved.

Q: Would a criminal conviction result after two positive tests?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   It would depend very much on the circumstances (i.e. post-accident, etc).

Q: Do we have the opportunity to assist a person who tests positive for a pre-employment test?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   Rehabilitation information may be provided.

Q: What is CASA's position with a pilot who becomes rehabilitated?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   Return-to-work monitoring will exist within an AOD Program, therefore the responsibility lies with the operator.

Who is funding this process?

Q: Who will fund this exercise?

CASA'S response (August 2006):   This aspect has not been finalised. We may find that operators will have to fund testing for all but random testing which may have its associated costs picked up by the Government. CASA has explored least-cost suitable methods of testing and this information will be provided to employers. CASA has also undertaken a cost-benefit study that shows substantial financial benefits over initial costs over a 10 year period.

Q: What about the costs incurred to test private pilots?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   It is very unlikely that private pilots will have to pay for their random test.

Q: What are the costs associated with testing if the government does not fund this?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   The latest cost estimate for a test is in the vicinity of $130.

Q: I work for a small organisation. We cannot afford to set up an AOD Program.

CASA'S response (November 2006):   The cost is low and CASA will assist by providing an AMC (Acceptable Means of Compliance).

Q: Will CASA charge to approve an AOD Program?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   No.

Q: Who pays for the test under 'Option 1'?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   Under option 1, industry will need to bear all costs to set-up an AOD Program, including testing. (All options are included in the cost-benefit analysis which is available on the CASA website (344K Adobe PDF version 4 document). If, after reading about the options, you feel strongly about any particular one, you may wish to submit your view in writing to CASA for consideration in deciding upon which option to implement.)

Where can I get more information?

Q: Where can I get more information?

CASA'S response (November 2006):   CASA has set up an e-mail address AODforums2006@casa.gov.au to gather questions regarding this subject. As well, these Question and Answer webpages will be updated regularly as more questions are received. CASA personnel and contracted experts travelled extensively to provide the aviation community with free forums and informative material on this subject in September and October 2006.