Standard instrument departures and arrivals
ICAO SID/STAR procedures
Standard instrument departures (SIDs) and standard instrument arrivals (STARs) are charted instrument procedure designs depicting the lateral profile that pilots must follow for landing or departing at suitably equipped aerodromes. Various level and speed restrictions apply along the route.
There is a standardised system of communication for SID and STAR procedures to ensure efficient and concise communication that would otherwise require long and complex radio transmissions between the pilot and air traffic control.
SID and STAR designs and standardised transmissions are an effective way of communicating a large amount of complex information for safe and efficient departures and arrivals and are in place worldwide through the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).
Changes to phraseology
On 9 November 2017, Australia introduced changes to the standard phraseology for SIDs and STARs, as issued by ICAO. The phraseology used by air traffic controllers from this date is explained in the table below.
The updated phraseology positively reinforces that lateral, vertical and speed requirements embedded in a SID or STAR continue to apply unless explicitly cancelled or amended by the controller. This is to help address radio frequency clutter by ensuring transmissions are efficient and effective.
Key phraseology for SIDs and STARs
|ATC instruction||New phraseology||Notes|
|Follow published SID/STAR procedure||
|Removal of speed or level restrictions||
|Resumption of speed or level restrictions||
||RESUME NORMAL SPEED, NO ATC SPEED RESTRICTIONS or NO SPEED RESTRICTIONS is not used with SID/STAR instructions.|
|Variations to lateral profile of SID/STAR||
||Published* level and speed restrictions for bypassed waypoints are cancelled.|
|Return to SID/STAR||
||Comply with any published* speed or level restrictions, at and after the waypoint where the SID/STAR is rejoined.|
* 'Published' means published on the SID or STAR chart
Printable version of key phraseology for SIDs and STARs reference card
Changes to charting and speed control aspects
- Australian SID and STAR charts are now standardised to show all speed restrictions relevant to the particular procedure, including those previously published as separate Standard Terminal Area Arrival Speeds (STAAS) or ‘airspace’ speed restrictions.
- All references to STAAS are now omitted from the AIP.
- IFR aircraft in Class C airspace are no longer subject to an airspace speed limitation.
- An ATC traffic management speed restriction of maximum 250 kt when operating below 10,000 ft AMSL now applies for Class C airspace surrounding all Class C aerodromes and some Class D aerodromes, as noted in the ERSA.
Important safety notes for conducting SIDs and STARs
- No Australian SID or STAR chart has a top or bottom altitude.
- This is unlike the procedure requirements for many SIDs and STARs in the USA.
- When on a SID or STAR – climb or descend only in accordance with an ATC-assigned level.
- Pilots must read back the SID/STAR instructions to air traffic control.
- Aerodrome and procedure charts (Airservices Australia)
- SID scenarios
- STAR scenarios
- SID STAR frequently asked questions
- SID STAR radio telephony guide
- Draft amendments to AIP ERSA for ICAO SID STAR procedures
For SID/STAR queries please email: email@example.com, or phone 131 757 and request to speak to the CNS team.