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Project OS 11/24 - Incorporation of Performance Class concepts into Australian helicopter operations
Project closed 17 January 2019.
Currently CASA's regulatory suite has no performance standard for helicopters (unlike CAOs 20.7.1B, 20.7.2 and 20.7.4 for aeroplanes).
This is despite ICAO Annex 6 Part III Chapter 3 Para 3.1.1 requiring, for air transport operations, the State of the operator to develop a "code of performance" for the operation of rotorcraft that reflects "for the conduct of operations, both the various phases of flight and the operational environment".
This absence of a performance standard particularly affects the following operations:
- LCRPT and Charter helicopter operations
- Aerial Work helicopter operations which routinely carry passengers
- Emergency Medical Service Operations
- Police and Law Enforcement support operations
- SAR operations
- Fire-fighting support operations eg. Tactical insertion of fire-fighters
CASR Parts 133 and 138 are therefore being developed with the object of having a performance code embedded within their respective provisions.
This performance code has been the subject of a policy Minute to the Director. The Director agreed with the recommendations and signed the Minute.
Within the context of the performance code outlined above there will be four performance classes:
- Performance Class 1 for a rotorcraft means the class of operations where, in the event of failure of an engine, performance is available to enable the rotorcraft to land within the rejected take-off distance available or safely continue the flight to an appropriate landing area, depending on when the failure occurs
- Performance Class 2 for a rotorcraft means the class of operations where, in the event of failure of an engine, performance is available to enable the rotorcraft to safely continue the flight except when the failure occurs early during the take-off manoeuvre or late in the landing manoeuvre, in which case a forced landing may be required.
- Performance Class 2 with exposure. Performance Class 2 operations can be designed to operate with a permitted exposure time for the periods where safe continuation of flight or landing is not assured, or alternatively at all times with a safe forced landing capability. The policy recommendations for PC2 operations include the maximum permitted exposure time concept - see definitions below.
- Performance Class 3 for a rotorcraft means the class of operations where, in the event of failure of an engine at any time during the flight, a forced landing:
- in the case of a multi-engine rotorcraft - may be required; or
- in the case of a single-engine rotorcraft - will be required.
Exposure time: The actual period during which the performance of the helicopter with an engine inoperative in still air does not guarantee a safe forced landing or the safe continuation of the flight. (See also definition of maximum permitted exposure time).
Maximum permitted exposure time: A period, determined on the basis of the engine failure rate recorded for the helicopter's engine type, during which the probability of an engine failure can be discounted. CASA may publish maximum permitted exposure times for various specialised in-flight purposes and aerial work operations. (See also definition of exposure time).
Note - these definitions each have obstacle clearance requirements, standard operating procedure design, HLS design criteria and enroute operational requirements outlined in the operational CASR Part.
The baseline elements of the Performance Classes above have been developed as part of the CASR Part 133 project and are now established as draft legislation in Part 133 subpart F.
The next stage of this development phase is to design the operator entry control criteria, helicopter reliability aspects, and the pilot and operational standards for Performance Class 2 (PC2) with exposures operations, in the form of a legislative instrument to be issued under Part 133 subpart F for these types of operations.
This segment of the performance code necessarily will need to be contained within a legislative instrument due to the highly complex nature of its content and also due to the need to be able to change criteria within the standard to react to developments in the internationally recognised limits for PC2 with exposure operations.
Further to this issue, CASA's current policy notice on multi-engine helicopter operational performance standards (CEO PN029-2005) is out of date and overdue for amendment. This policy notice could be cancelled if a CAO is developed to introduce the performance code in place of the policy notice.
The above steps would also have advantages for the implementation stage of Part 133 as operators will have assimilated operations under the CAO prior to the commencement of Part 133.
The objectives of this project have been incorporated into Part 133 of CASR which was made in December 2018 and comes into force in March 2021. There is insufficient resource capacity within CASA to develop the performance code into a CAO prior to March 2021 whilst simultaneously ensuring appropriate guidance material development for Part 133 and all necessary training and education materials.
- The development of Performance Class 2 (with exposure) baseline operational standards, entry control and ongoing operational management criteria
- The development of a CAO for helicopter performance criteria
- The development of guidance material for the above
The primary objective is the incorporation of Performance Class concepts as a code of performance into Australian helicopter operations, to be achieved through the following 3 steps:
- The design of the operator entry control criteria, helicopter reliability aspects, and the pilot and operational standards for performance class 2 (PC2) with exposures operations, in the form of a legislative instrument which will be issued under Part 133 subpart F for these types of operations, using as a model the criteria from:
- JAR-OPS 3.517(a)
- ACJ-1 to Appendix 1 to JAR-OPS 3.517(a)
- ACJ-2 to Appendix 1 to JAR-OPS 3.517(a)
with Australian criteria overlaid. This document will be posted with final consultation draft for CASR Part 133 for full industry consultation later in 2011.
- The construction of CAO 20.7.3 as a code of performance for Australian helicopter operations focusing on the air transport (charter and RPT) and high-risk aerial work sectors (HEMS and police support)
- The construction of guidance material for operators for PC1, PC2 and PC3 operations in the industry sectors outlined above.
This project was approved by Peter Boyd on 5 August 2011 and Greg Hood on 11 August 2011.
CAR 235 (2) & (3)
Project Leader: email@example.com, Senior Standards Officer Rotorcraft
Project Sponsors: Peter Boyd (EM Standards Development) and Greg Hood (EM CASA Operations)
Standards Development Project Manager: Dale South, Senior Standards Officer Rotorcraft
|Consultation updates in 2019|
|Project OS 11/24 - Incorporation of Performance Class concepts into Australian helicopter operations||Project closed.||17 January 2019|
|Consultation updates in 2011|
|Project OS 11/24 - Incorporation of Performance Class concepts into Australian helicopter operations||Project approved.||17 Aug 2011|