Multi-crew cooperation training
Learn about the new rules for multi-crew cooperation training – in effect for some licence holders since 1 September 2014 and other licence holders from 1 September 2015.
The full rules are contained in Part 61 of the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations.
Who does this information apply to?
- Pilots who want to gain an air transport pilot licence.
- All pilots who want to operate a multi-crew aircraft.
- Flying training organisations.
- Flight examiners.
- Training and checking organisations.
What is multi-crew cooperation training?
Multi-crew operation (MCC) training covers units of knowledge and practical skills that are used when pilots are part of a multi-crew operation. The training is generic to conducting multi-crew operations and is not specific to a type of aircraft.
It is desirable, although not mandatory, that MCC training is completed before a pilot starts training for a multi-crew certificated aircraft type rating.
The details of the content of MCC training is in the Part 61 Manual of Standards (MOS). Refer to Schedule 1 for the units of knowledge and practical flight standards.
In summary, MCC training has to cover:
- knowledge of air transport pilot licence (ATPL) human factors (refer to unit code AHFC, Schedule 3 of the MOS)
- practical experience in managing flight during multi-crew operations (refer to unit code MCO, Schedule 2 of the MOS).
MCC training involves classroom learning and practical training in a suitable flight simulation training device.
What is a multi-crew operation?
The term 'multi-crew cooperation' is defined in the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations as an operation that requires at least two pilots in:
- a multi-crew aircraft (the aircraft is certificated for operation by a crew of at least two pilots) or
- an aircraft that is equipped – and required by the regulations – to be operated by a crew of at least two pilots.
An aircraft that is operated by two pilots but doesn’t comply with one of the definitions above is not a multi-crew operation.
When is MCC training required?
MCC training is required whenever you are piloting an aircraft in a multi-crew operation. The purpose is to ensure both the pilot-in-command (PIC) and the co-pilot are capable of operating effectively.
MCC training is integral to obtaining a multi-crew pilot licence (MPL) and an ATPL.
Holders of a private pilot licence (PPL) or commercial pilot licence (CPL) also need to complete MCC training to be authorised to conduct a multi-crew operation. This is to ensure they are competent performing their respective PIC or co-pilot duties whether they are pilot flying or monitoring.
When do the rules come into effect?
Since 1 September 2014, ATPL applicants must have completed MCC training prior to taking the ATPL flight test.
From 1 September 2015, PPL and CPL holders must have completed MCC training in order to be authorised to pilot an aircraft in a multi-crew operation.
Private and commercial pilot licence holders who conduct multi-crew operations before 1 September 2015 are taken to have met this requirement.
Can recreational pilot licence holders conduct multi-crew operations?
No. A recreational pilot licence does not authorise the holder to conduct multi-crew operations.
Who can conduct multi-crew cooperation training?
MCC training is specified as Part 142 training, so the provider of MCC training needs to hold a Part 142 certificate and be authorised to conduct this training. See below for more information about Part 142 certificates and current Air Operator’s Certificate (AOC) holders conducting MCC-equivalent training.
Instructors need to hold a pilot instructor rating and a multi-crew pilot training endorsement.
Do instructors need to have an MCC training approval?
Yes, they need to have a multi-crew pilot training endorsement. To obtain that endorsement on their instructor rating they need to complete MCC instructor training.
Is there an MCC flight test?
No, there is no flight test for the MCC. At the completion of MCC training the Part 142 operator provides a course completion certificate as evidence that you have completed the training to the required standard. You need to present that certificate to the flight examiner if you are doing an ATPL or MPL flight test, or your first multi-crew type rating.
Do I get an endorsement on my licence when I complete an MCC course?
No, there is no licence endorsement for MCC training. Your Part 142 operator should provide a course completion certificate as evidence that you have completed the training to the required standard.
The following information applies to MCC-equivalent training courses that were approved before 1 September 2014
What is an MCC-equivalent training course?
A training course that was approved prior to 1 September 2014 under Civil Aviation Regulation (CAR) 217 which covers the Part 61 MCC course content is an MCC-equivalent course.
For example, an airline’s initial and conversion training course is acceptable if it is for an operation that requires the pilot in command to hold an ATPL. That course is deemed to be a Part 142 MCC course conducted under the operator’s AOC for the duration of the transition period (up to 31 August 2018), or until the operator completes their transition (whichever comes first).
An operator’s MCC-equivalent training course is reviewed during the Part 142 transition process. Approving the course depends on the content meeting the Part 61 standards.
Modifications might be required to bring the old course up to the Part 61 standard if it is deficient.
I want to obtain my ATPL after 1 September 2014. What MCC training do I need to complete?
MCC training is a requirement for the grant of an ATPL from 1 September 2014. You satisfy the MCC requirement for an ATPL if you complete an MCC-equivalent training course either before or after 1 September 2014. Otherwise, you need to complete an approved Part 142 MCC training course.
Do I need to complete an MCC course?
The following case studies show examples of pilots with different circumstances, and what they need to do in relation to MCC training.
Adam holds an ATPL (A) and an A320 type rating. He is working for an airline and is successfully participating in the airline’s approved training and checking system. This means Adam already satisfies the MCC training requirement and can continue to conduct multi-crew operations following the implementation of the new regulations.
Tina holds and ATPL(H), has no multi-crew operational experience and works in general aviation in single-pilot operations. Tina’s new employer wants her to operate a multi-crew certificated helicopter.
Tina’s ATPL authorises multi-crew operations and, on completion of the helicopter type rating, she can commence multi-crew operations – she doesn’t need to complete MCC training.
However, the operator would need to ensure that Tina completes the operator’s initial and conversion training (including training in crew resource management) to ensure she is competent in conducting the proposed multi-crew operations.
The type rating training is Part 61 training and therefore the operator needs to hold a Part 142 certificate (a current AOC that authorises the training is sufficient during the transition period).
Peta holds a CPL(A) and is working with an airline as an ATR42 co-pilot. Having completed the airline’s initial, conversion and type rating training earlier, Peta has been operating on the line and is now preparing to upgrade to command.
Peta requires an ATPL(A) and is participating in the airline’s upgrade training, which includes MCC competencies. The MCC training is Part 61 training and is therefore conducted under Part 142 (for transition, the airline is taken to be a Part 142 organisation and the training is taken to be Part 142 training).
The flight examiner conducting the ATPL flight test will require evidence of the MCC-equivalent training (already done in the initial training and updated during the command training) to ensure Peta is eligible for the flight test.
Lloyd holds a CPL(H) and has no multi-crew operational experience. He gets a job as a co-pilot with a helicopter operator conducting marine transfer operations using an S92, which requires two pilots.
Lloyd has to complete S92 type rating training and the operator’s induction training. If Lloyd commences multi-crew operations before 1 September 2015, he won’t need to complete Part 61 MCC training.
This is because the requirement for PPL and CPL holders to undertake MCC training now commences on 1 September 2015 instead of 1 September 2014.
However, if Lloyd begins multi-crew operations after 1 September 2015, he must have completed Part 61 MCC training.
Monica holds a CPL(A) and a DH 6 type endorsement (under CAR Part 5). She has been flying as PIC of the DH 6 for a regular public transport operator. Because the aircraft has more than nine passenger seats the operation must, according to the regulations, be conducted as a multi-crew operation (note the PIC is not required to hold an ATPL) in this scenario.
From 1 September 2014, Monica can continue as PIC in the multi-crew operation and her experience means she doesn’t need to complete MCC training in order to continue conducting multi-crew operations.
However, if Monica wants to obtain an ATPL, she will need to complete Part 61 MCC training. The training and checking she does for the operation isn’t taken to be MCC-equivalent training.
Chris holds a PPL(A) and has no multi-crew operational experience. He completes training and passes the flight test for the Citation Mustang single-pilot type rating (C510SP). Note: the C510 can be operated single-pilot and multi-pilot, according to its type certificate.
Chris is now authorised to operate the C510 as a single-pilot operation. If Chris wants to operate the aircraft in a multi-crew operation, he can do so from 1 September 2014 until 31 August 2015. If he wants to operate the C510 multi-crew from 1 September 2015, he needs to complete MCC training.
Charlie holds a PPL(A) and a C510 type rating (note this is a multi-crew type rating—the single-pilot type rating is C510SP). The flight test for the rating was conducted as a multi-crew operation.
Charlie is authorised to conduct multi-crew operations throughout the transitional period, however, she is not authorised to operate the aircraft single-pilot until she obtains the C510SP type rating.
Want to know more?
Visit the Licensing Regulations section.
The new rules for air transport pilots are contained in Part 61 of the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations:
- Regulation 61.510 – limitations on exercise of privileges of private pilot licences – multi-crew operations
- Regulation 61.575 – limitations on exercise of privileges of commercial pilot licences – multi-crew operations
- Regulation 61.655 – requirements for grant of multi-crew pilot licences
- Regulation 61.700 – requirements for grant of air transport pilot licences
- Regulation 61.785 – limitations on exercise of privileges of pilot type ratings – single-pilot operation and multi-crew operations
- Regulation 61.822 – removal of type rating condition about acting as pilot in command
- Regulation 61.845 – requirements for grant of cruise relief type ratings
- Regulation 202.266 – removal of conditions on certain continued authorisations
- Regulation 202.268 – removal of limitation on exercises of privileges of private or commercial pilot licences – multi-crew operations.