How PBN impacts you
The PBN regulations impact all IFR operators in Australia.
The introduction of PBN involves all stakeholders involved in IFR flight operations. In Australia, if you have a GNSS-equipped aircraft approved for IFR operations, you do not need to make any changes. That is why there are deeming provisions in the Civil Aviation Orders.
The deeming provisions say if you have a TSO-certified, stand-alone navigation or integrated navigation systems that have been fitted according to the regulations and you are a suitably qualified pilot, you are deemed to hold the required navigation authorisations.
Legacy navigation authorisations remained valid for two years under CAO 20.91, unless they lapsed or were replaced. Now that the two years has expired, PBN navigation authorisations are required.
However, aircraft with flight management systems (FMS), such as some newer commuter/regional aircraft, will need to obtain navigation authorisations from CASA. The PBN standards also provide for IFR helicopter-specific operations such as in metropolitan areas and for offshore support.
The deeming provisions are based on already demonstrated compliance, so re-examination of approvals is not necessary. Sections 9, 10 and 11 of CAO 20.91 state that operators of certain Australian aircraft equipped with stand-alone GNSS are deemed to hold authorisations for certain navigation specifications addressed by CAO 20.91, providing certain criteria are met.
In all cases:
- a) the aircraft installation must meet the criteria specified in AC 21-36 (on or after 13 April 2005) or CAAP 35-1 (before 13 April 2005); or have an Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) statement of the aircraft navigation capability i.e. RNP 2, RNP 1 and RNP APCH – LNAV; and
- b) pilots must have completed the training required and be authorised in accordance with Part 61. A summary of the CAO 20.91 deeming provisions are on page 12 of the PBN information booklet.
Pilot qualifications required
To be deemed to hold navigation authorisations for these navigation specifications (Appendix 1–5 as applicable), you must also meet the pilot qualifications specified in Part 61.
Since navigation under PBN relies on area navigation, the aircraft navigation system must carry a navigation database. Under the requirements of the CAO:
- the database must be valid for the current AIRAC cycle (refer to CAO 20.91 and AIP GEN 3.1 4 for further information);
- all terminal routes (SIDs, STARs and approaches) must be loaded from the database and may not be modified by the pilot.
The following items concerning installations have come to CASA’s attention and operators need to be aware of them:
- TSO C129 GPS systems do not meet the requirements for ADS-B.
- Aircraft for sale in the US are advertised as having ADS-B; buyers need to ensure that the ADS-B in such aircraft uses the Mode S transponder with Extended Squitter (commonly referred to as 1090 MHz Extended Squitter). Many aircraft in the US have ADS-B through the use of Universal Access Transceivers (UAT) – these will not work in Australia.
- Modern electronic display systems and other avionics systems have micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) inertial sensors fitted. To function correctly, these systems often need either GNSS or pitot-static inputs (or both). When installing modern equipment, installers need to install systems in accordance with the manufacturer’s Installation Manual and include all relevant interfaces.