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CASR Part 91 - General operating and flight rules
New basic operating rules for all pilots commence on 2 December 2021.
These rules are in Civil Aviation Safety Regulations (CASR) Part 91 – General operating and flight rules. CASR Part 91 should be read with the Part 91 Manual of Standards (MOS) which details how to comply with the rules.
On this page
Part 91 applies to all aviation operations except drones.
There are additional rules for pilots operating under an Air Operator's Certificate (AOC) or other certificate, or those conducting defined activities such as aerial work, aerial application and some recreational aviation activities. These rules are in other CASR Parts and may add to or turn off some Part 91 requirements – either completely or partially.
Part 91 primarily retains existing rules with a small number of new rules designed to enhance flexibility and safety.
The biggest benefit is that all the general operating and flight rules are in one place – Part 91 and the Part 91 MOS – making it easier to work out exactly what the law requires you to do.
The main changes are:
- Give greater flexibility for carriage of animals and firearms. The pilot in command has more choice on how to apply the requirements based on their individual circumstances and how they manage the risk.
- Restrict the simulation of certain in-flight emergencies and who can be on board at the time.
- Introduce an approach ban in weather conditions consistently below landing minima at certain aerodromes for Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) flights.
- Give greater discretion for the pilot in command to determine which portable electronic devices may be used by passengers without compromising safety.
- Relax oxygen requirements for non-air transport operations.
- Permit the carriage of documents electronically.
- Amend the minimum altitude at which a cruising level must be used during flight under the visual flight rules (VFR).
Part 91 is part of a suite of flight operations regulations that commence on 2 December 2021.
Current rules in effect for Part 91 include:
- Civil Aviation Safety Amendment (Part 91) Regulations 2018
- Part 91 (General Operating and Flight Rules) Manual of Standards 2020.
An instrument has been issued with some minor changes and corrections. Part 91 will be amended by CASA at the next available opportunity to reflect the changes.
- Part 91 exemptions and directions instrument in plain English (pdf 115.87 KB)
- CASA EX81/21 – Part 91 of CASR – Supplementary Exemptions and Directions Instrument 2021.
We have developed a Plain English Guide to make it as easy as possible to understand the new flight operations regulations.
Other advisory material provides advice and guidance to explain the regulatory requirements.
|CASR Part 91 Key operational changes (pdf 546.91 KB)||General operating and flight rules||September|
|AC 1-03 v3.0 (pdf 709.64 KB)||Transitioning to the flight operations regulations||October 2021|
|AC 91-02 v1.0 (pdf 1.38 MB)||Guidelines for aeroplanes with MTOW not exceeding 5 700 kg||October 2021|
|AC 91-03 v1.0 (pdf 353.73 KB)||Carriage of assistance animals||May 2021|
|AC 91-06 v1.1 (pdf 464.6 KB)||Performance-based communications and surveillance||October 2021|
|AC 91-10 v1.0 (pdf 615 KB)||Operations in the vicinity of non-controlled aerodromes||October 2021|
|AC 91-15 v1.1 (pdf 727.33 KB)||Guidelines for aircraft fuel requirements||August 2021|
|AC 91-16 v1.0 (pdf 951.05 KB)||Wake turbulence||December 2020|
|AC 91-17 v1.0 (pdf 554.18 KB)||Electronic flight bags||October 2021|
|AC 91-18 v1.0 (pdf 753.84 KB)||Restraint of infants and children||June 2021|
|AC 91-22 v1.0 (pdf 367.71 KB)||Aircraft checklist systems||July 2021|
|AC 91-23 v1.0 (pdf 376.94 KB)||ADS-B for enhancing situational awareness||June 2020|
|AC 91-28 v1.0 (pdf 321.58 KB)||Crew safety during turbulence||August 2021|
|AC 91-29 v1.0 (pdf 613.55 KB)||Guidelines for helicopters – suitable places to take-off and land||October 2021|
|AMC/GM Part 91 (pdf 1.28 MB)||General operating and flight rules||October 2021|
|Flight operations regulations - consolidated dictionary (pdf 1.49 MB)||Flight operations regulations - consolidated dictionary||January 2021|
|Mapping of Civil Aviation Orders to Part 91 of CASR - General operating and flight rules (pdf 476.97 KB)||General operating and flight rules||April 2021|
|Mapping of Civil Aviation Regulations to Part 91 of CASR - General operating and flight rules (pdf 554 KB)||General operating and flight rules||April 2021|
|Multi-Part AC 91-19, AC 121-04, AC 133-10, AC 135-12 and AC 138-10 v1.0 (pdf 623.66 KB) (623.66 KB)||Passenger safety information||August 2021|
Guidance materials on navigation authorisations, 91U, can be found under Airspace and aerodromes on the advisory circulars page.