Case study: Navigation and surveillance regulations world first
Australia is leading the world with the introduction of new regulatory requirements and standards for aircraft navigation and air-to-ground surveillance.
Civil Aviation Order (CAO) 20.91, covering performance-based navigation standards and the associated navigation authorisations, came into effect on 18 July 2012.
Amendment Instrument 2012 No. 1 to CAO 20.18, which mandates the required avionics equipment (Global Navigation Satellite System satellite navigation receivers and Mode S/Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast transponders), came into effect on 23 August 2012.
CASA initiated the project to introduce the regulations and standards as part of the International Civil Aviation Organization's efforts to harmonise navigation standards globally through its performance-based navigation concept.
The legislation was made following the completion of two projects that were a team effort involving CASA, Airservices Australia and the industry-based Australian Strategic Air Traffic Management Group.
Performance-based navigation in Australia encompasses a shift from ground-based navigational aids to a system that relies on the performance and functional capability of equipment on board the aircraft, based on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS).
ADS-B provides radar-like surveillance for air traffic control in the upper airspace over the whole Australian continent and in significant areas of Australian administered oceanic airspace.
The project also addresses the future air traffic management initiatives outlined in the National Aviation Policy White Paper 2009, as the future Australian air traffic management system relies heavily on GNSS and ADS-B for aircraft navigation and surveillance by air traffic control.
The accuracy of GNSS allows more efficient and flexible use of airspace, with less reliance on ground-based navigation aids. This provides optimal route placement and increases aviation safety, fuel savings and environmental benefits.
Approximately 3,500 aircraft flying under instrument flight rules will be affected by the introduction of performance-based navigation and ADS-B.
All instrument flight rules capable aircraft will need to be equipped with GNSS equipment as their primary means of navigation by February 2016. ADS-B will be phased in from December 2013 to February 2017.