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Resource booklet 8 Threat and error management
The threat and error management (TEM) concept, developed at the University of Texas in the late 1990s, looks at how airline flight crew respond to external threats and internal errors that could lead to undesired aircraft states during flight.
The TEM model can be used to analyse a single event, or to understand systemic patterns within a large set of events. It can also be used to help clarify human performance needs, strengths and vulnerabilities, and as a training tool to help an organisation improve the effectiveness of its training interventions, and consequently its organisational safeguards.