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Project OS 01/11 - CASR Part 135 - Australian air transport operations - smaller aeroplanes
Accident rate analysis for Australian air transport operations (consisting of charter and regular passenger transport (RPT) operations) over the last two decades has outlined significant accident rate disparities between low capacity charter and low capacity RPT and high capacity RPT. The 2017 CASA Sector Risk Profile for the small aeroplane transport sector revealed small aeroplane unscheduled operations (charter) had an accident rate 11 times greater than small aeroplane scheduled operations (RPT).
This risk profile identified that the top five safety factors contributing to occurrences in the small aeroplane sector were monitoring and checking, assessing and planning, communicating / coordinating, pre-flight inspection and aircraft handling. Pilot training, supervision and mentoring play critical roles in developing pilot skills for managing high frequency occurrence types.
The key new proposals for Part 135 of CASR have been developed to reduce the size of the disparity in accident rates between small aeroplane charter and small aeroplane RPT. As outlined earlier, the merging of charter and RPT to form air transport operations provides new opportunities for existing charter operators in relation to the types of services they can offer the community. The provision of this opportunity requires the reduction, but not necessarily the complete elimination, of the disparity in accident rates.
Part 135 of CASR mainly focuses on controlling risk through additional administrative (procedural) defences however it does also require additional equipment, notably TAWS for some aircraft. The TAWS fitment requirement (outlined earlier for aeroplanes over 5 700kg) is based on Part I of Annex 6 to the Chicago Convention and EASA standards. CASA had originally proposed the fitment of a minimum of TAWS-Class B for aeroplanes with a MOPSC greater than 5 which aligned with the Federal Aviation Administration of the USA (FAA) and Transport Canada rules however this was changed after discussion with the Aviation Safety Advisory Panel Technical Working Group. The FAA mandated TAWS for new AOC holders from 2001 and for existing AOC holders from 2005.
The proposed regulations would set the minimum acceptable standards applicable to smaller aeroplanes that are conducting air transport operations.
Some of the changes incorporated into Part 135 of CASR are:
- Enabling extant charter operators, by merging of the concepts of charter and regular public transport into air transport and providing a common level of safety, to conduct fixed scheduled flights that are available to persons generally (an ability currently requiring an RPT AOC).
- Where the aircraft type has a master minimum equipment list, require aeroplanes flown internationally, or domestically under the IFR, to be operated in accordance with a minimum equipment list.
- The proposed regulations, where possible, allow for an outcomes-based approach to be adopted in the operator's exposition procedures.
- Relaxation of aerodrome requirements and require operators to ensure that aerodromes are suitable for the take-off and landing of the aeroplane, subject to the applicable performance requirements in Subpart 135.F and the Part 135 MOS.
- Relaxation of simulator requirements for aeroplanes certificated with greater than nine passenger seats but operated with a MOPSC of nine or less.
- Align with ICAO standards and alleviate existing requirements for the carriage and use of oxygen by non-pressurised aeroplanes when operating for no longer than 30 minutes between 10 000 ft and FL130.
- Modified performance provisions based on CAOs 20.7.2, 20.7.1B and 20.7.4.
- Require take-off alternate aerodromes under certain conditions.
- Require sterile cockpit operations during certain flight phases.
- Require operators to specify certain procedures for flights of prescribed single-engine aeroplanes (formerly known as ASETPA).
- Define suitable forced landing areas and modify overwater flight rules for prescribed single-engine aeroplanes.
- The proposed definition of suitable forced landing area encompasses areas of ground and, for prescribed single-engine aeroplanes, certain areas of water (subject to specific conditions).
- Require operators to specify procedures for determining how, and by whom, operational control for a flight is to be exercised.
- Require journey logs for each flight (although the journey log could be combined with other documentation).
- Enable operators to flexibly define procedures for providing updated information in relation to a multi-journey flight in cases where keeping copies of updated information on the ground is impractical.
- Require at least one member of the aeroplane’s flight crew when operating at night under the visual flight rules to be authorised under Part 61 of CASR to conduct an instrument flight rules (IFR) flight.
- Require information about search and rescue (SAR) services to be readily accessible to flight crew members, and for information about emergency and survival equipment carried on an aeroplane to be available for on-forwarding by the operator to a rescue coordination centre (RCC).
- Require aeroplanes over 5 700 kg MTOW when flown under night VFR or IFR rules in the conduct of passenger or medical transport operations to be fitted with terrain awareness warning system (TAWS) equipment.
- Turbine-engine aeroplanes over 5 700kg are to be fitted with TAWS-Class A equipment. Piston-engine aeroplanes over 5 700kg are to be fitted with TAWS-Class B equipment.
- Modified requirements for the fitment of airborne weather radar equipment.
- Training and checking requirements for all crew.
This project is associated with CASR Part 135.
|Consultation updates in 2020|
|Civil Aviation Legislation Amendment (Flight Operations—Miscellaneous Amendments) Regulations 2020||This instrument makes amendments to the flight operations regulations (FOR) ahead of the commencement of the FOR in late 2021. It simplifies elements of Parts 138 and 91, corrects technical issues and errors within the FOR, makes minor policy changes, and enables increased clarity for the subordinate aviation legislation in the form of Manuals of Standards (MOS) for the FOR.||19 October 2020|
|PP 1918OS - Proposed transitional policies for flight operations regulations||Comments close 30 June 2020.||02 June 2020|
|Consultation updates in 2019|
|Summary of consultation on CD 1805OS - Proposed changes to the rules for smaller aeroplanes air transport operations - Part 119 and 135 of CASR||This Summary of consultation on CD 1805OS has been published.||24 April 2019|
|CASR Dictionary amendments||The changes to the CASR dictionary essential to understanding and interpreting the terminology used in Parts 91, 119, 121, 133, 135 and 138 are now available on the Federal Register of Legislation. Like the 6 CASR parts, these specific dictionary changes become effective on 25 March 2021. Industry is advised that further CAR and CASR dictionary changes will occur as part of the legislative package that repeals existing 1988 series Civil Aviation Regulations. This package is currently under development and is planned to be available later in 2019. The new legislative instrument is available at Civil Aviation Safety Amendment (Operations Definitions) Regulations 2019||17 April 2019|
|Consultation updates in 2018|
|Civil Aviation Safety Amendment (Part 135) Regulations 2018||Regulation made 6 December 2018||20 December 2018|
|Proposed CASR Dictionary amendments||Parts 119, 121, 133, 135 CASR Dictionary - Draft consultation (pdf 276.95 KB) is an earlier version of public consultation draft changes to the CASR Dictionary. This will be updated as approved drafts become available.||18 December 2018|
|CD 1805OS - Proposed changes to the rules for smaller aeroplanes air transport operations - Part 119 and 135 of CASR||Comments close 2 September 2018.||3 August 2018|
|Consultations updates in 2013|
|NPRM 1304OS - Regulations of aeroplane and helicopter 'ambulance function' flights as Air Transport operations||This NPRM closed for comment 11 October 2013.||14 October 2013|
|NPRM 1304OS - Regulations of aeroplane and helicopter 'ambulance function' flights as Air Transport operations||Comments to this NPRM has now been extended until 11 October 2013.||26 September 2013|
|NPRM 1304OS - Regulations of aeroplane and helicopter 'ambulance function' flights as Air Transport operations||Comments close 27 September 2013.||31 July 2013|
|Consultations updates in 2012|
|Revised Consultation Draft for CASR Part 135 - Australian Air Transport Operations - Small Aeroplanes||This Consultation Draft closed for comment 24 August 2012.||27 August 2012|
|Revised Consultation Draft for CASR Part 135 - Australian Air Transport Operations - Small Aeroplanes
Notice of revision
Proposed CASR Part 135
Proposed CASR Part 135 – Definitions
Proposed CASR Part 135 – AMC/GM
Proposed CASR Part 121z
|All comments should be sent via the online system by close of business 24 August 2012.||11 July 2012|
|Consultation Draft for CASR Part 135 - Australian Air Transport Operations - Small Aeroplanes||All comments should be sent via the online system by close of business 24 August 2012.||6 July 2012|
|Consultations updates in 2009|
|Infopack slideshow on CASR Part 135||31 May 2009|
|NPRM 0808OS - Passenger Transport Services and International Cargo Operations - Small Aeroplanes (CASR Part 135)||Available for comment until 10 April 2009||16 February 2009|
|Consultations updates in 2008|
|NPRM 0807OS - Passenger Transport Services: terminology in and application of new CASR Parts 119, 121, 129, 131, 133 and 135||This NPRM closed for comment on 6 February 2009.||11 December 2008|
|Consultations updates in 2004|
|Two CASR Parts renumbered||CASR Parts 121A and 121B have been renumbered to 121 and 135 respectively.||6 September 2004|
|Consultations updates in 2003|
|NPRM 0307OS - Air transport operations - small aeroplanes||NPRM 0307OS - Air transport operations - small aeroplanes and associated Annexes have been published. Your comments are invited by 30 September 2003.||30 July 2003|
|Consultations updates in 2002|
|Extension of response periods for:
DP0202FS– Pilot licensing
DP0205FS– Flight training organisations
DP0206FS– Training and checking organisations
DP0207OS– Air transport operations – small aeroplanes
And Notices of Proposed Rule Making (NPRMs)
|Response period extended to close 31 August 2002.||21 June 2002|
|DP 0207OS - Air transport operations - small aeroplanes||DP 0207OS - Air transport operations - small aeroplanes has been issued. Your comments are requested.||28 March 2002|
|Consultations updates in 2001|
|Industry briefings||Industry briefing details on Consultation on proposed new rules for commercial air transport operations - small aeroplanes are now available.||25 January 2001|
|Project OS 01/11 - CASR Part 135: Air transport operations -small aeroplanes||Project approved August 2001.||August 2001|
|Consultations updates in 2000|
|SOR 9809RP - Proposed Regulations relating to Passenger and Crew Member Safety||SOR 9809RP relating to CASR Part 91, CASR Part 121A and CASR Part 121B has been published.||30 June 2000|
Other Part 135 activities
The CASR Part 135 history page includes:
- other projects
Project OS 01/11 is part of a group of CASA projects associated with the flight operations regulations. These projects consist of:
- CASR Part 91
- CASR Part 119
- CASR Part 121
- CASR Part 133
- CASR Part 135
- CASR Part 138.
These rules will replace the current regulations and orders covering private, aerial work, charter and RPT operations.
Project lead: Dale South
Policy manager: Manager, Flight Standards Branch