CNS/ATM resource kit – Appendices


Abbreviations and their meanings
AAIM Aircraft autonomous integrity monitor
ABAS Aircraft-based augmentation system
ACID Aircraft identification
ADC Air data computer
ADS Automatic dependent surveillance
ADS-B Automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast
ADS-C Automatic dependent surveillance-contract
AFCS Automatic flight control system
AFM Aircraft flight manual
AFMS Aircraft flight manual supplement
AIP Aeronautical Information Package
AIRAC Aeronautical information regulation and control
AIS Aeronautical information services
AMM Aircraft maintenance manual
AP Autopilot
APCH Approach
AR Authorisation required
ASECNA Agency for security of aerial navigation in Africa
ATC Air traffic control
ATIS Automatic terminal information service
ATS Air traffic services
AWIB Aerodrome weather information broadcast
BARO Barometric
Baro-VNAV Barometric vertical navigation
BNN Backup navigation network
B-RNAV Basic area navigation
CAAP Civil Aviation Advisory Publication
CAO Civil Aviation Order
CASA Civil Aviation Safety Authority
CDFA Continuous descent final approach
CDI Course deviation indicator
CDTI Cockpit display of traffic information
CPDLC Controller to pilot data link communication
DA Decision altitude
DB Database or data block
DME Distance measuring equipment
DOD US Department of Defense
EGNOS European geostationary navigation overlay service
ERSA En route supplement Australia
ESIR Electronic safety incident report
FAA Federal Aviation Administration
FAR Federal aviation regulation
FD Fault detection
FDE Fault detection and exclusion
FDR Flight data record
FIR Flight information region
FLTID Flight identification
FMS Flight management system
FTE Flight technical error
GBAS Ground-based augmentation system
GEO Geostationary Earth orbit
GLONASS Global orbiting navigation satellite system
GNSS Global navigation satellite systemk
GPS Global positioning system
GRAS Ground-based regional augmentation systems
IATA International Air Transport Association
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization
IFR Instrument flight rules
ILS Instrument landing system
IMC Instrument meteorological conditions
INS Inertial navigation system
IREX Instrument rating exam
IRS Inertial reference system
ISA International standard atmosphere
LAME Licensed aircraft maintenance engineer
LNAV Lateral navigation
LNAV/VNAV Lateral navigation with vertical navigation
LOC ILS localiser
LOI Loss of integrity
LP Localiser performance
LPV Localiser performance with vertical guidance
LSALT Lowest safe altitude
MNPS Minimum navigation performance specification
NAIPS National aeronautical information processing system
NATHLA North Atlantic high level airspace
ND Navigation display
NDB Non-directional beacon
NPA Non-precision approach
NRP Navigation rationalisation project
NSE/PEE Navigation system error/position estimation error
NVFR Night visual flight rules
OEM Original equipment manufacturer
PBN Performance-based navigation
PDE Path definition error
PIC Pilot-in-command
P-RNAV Precision area navigation
QZSS Quasi-zenith satellite system
RAIM Receiver autonomous integrity monitoring
RF Constant radius to a fix
RNAV Area navigation
RNP Required navigation performance
RNP APCH RNP approach
RNP AR DEP RNP AR departure
RNZAF Royal New Zealand Air Force
RPS RAIM prediction service
RVSM Reduced vertical separation minimum
SA Selective availability
SARPS Standards and recommended practices
SATCOM Satellite communications
SBAS Satellite-based augmentation system
SDCM Refers to the Russian system of differential correction and monitoring
SID Standard instrument departure
SIS Signal-in-space
SMS Safety management system
SSR Secondary surveillance radar
STAR Standard terminal arrival route
TCAS Traffic collision alerting and avoidance system
TF Track to a fix
TOAC Time of arrival control
TSE Total system error
TSO Technical standard order
VFR Visual flight rules
VHF Very high frequency
VMC Visual meteorological conditions
VNAV Vertical navigation
VOR VHF omnidirectional range
WAAS Wide area augmentation system
WGS World geodetic survey
WILCO ‘will comply’


Airspace: an area, route or procedure (the designated environment) in respect of which all, or any, of the following requirements must be satisfied, before an aircraft to which an order applies, is able to use it:

  • navigation specifications (RNAV or RNP) applicable in the designated environment, for which the aircraft must hold an authorisation or approval
  • aircraft navigation equipment requirements that the aircraft must satisfy
  • aircraft navigation system functional and performance requirements that the aircraft must satisfy
  • aircraft navigation equipment installation requirements that the aircraft must satisfy.

Almanac: a crude set of parameters used to approximate the orbits of satellites in the GNSS constellation.

Alternate means of navigation: the use of information from an area navigation system in lieu of that from conventional navigation aids and navigation equipment that is installed, operational and compatible with conventional navigation aids.

Augmentation systems: GNSS supplemental systems used to augment core satellite constellation signals to meet safety and reliability requirements. These systems may include ranging, integrity or differential elements in any combination. There are three categories of augmentation systems:

  • aircraft-based augmentation systems (ABAS)
  • ground-based augmentation systems (GBAS)
  • satellite-based augmentation systems (SBAS).

Automatic direction finder (ADF): equipment on the aircraft that detects a non-directional beacon’s (NDB) signal and the NDB transmitter.

Availability: the proportion of time the system is to be used for navigation during which the aircraft gets reliable navigation information.

CNS/ATM: airspace capacity is determined by the combined capabilities of the communications, navigation, surveillance and air traffic management systems (CNS/ATM) in place. These include ground- and aircraft-based systems and requirements vary according to the airspace being considered.

Coarse/acquisition code (C/A code): a satellite-unique sequence of binary pulses transmitted by a GPS satellite and available to all users of the system. Also known as the civilian code.

Continuity of service: the capability of the system to perform its function without unscheduled interruptions during the intended operation.

Continuous descent final approach (CDFA): a technique, consistent with stabilised approach procedures, for flying the final approach segment of a non-precision approach (NPA) procedure as a constant descent, without level-off, from an altitude at, or above, the final approach fix altitude to a point approximately 15 m (50 ft) height above the landing runway threshold or the point where the flare manoeuvre should begin for the type of aircraft flown.

Ephemeris: software which generates the position of planets and their satellites, asteroids or comets.

ETSO: European technical standard order and/or FAA technical standard order.

GAGAN: refers to the Indian global positioning system (GPS) aided geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) augmented navigation.

Instrument landing system localiser (LOC): a system of horizontal guidance in the instrument landing system, which is used to guide aircraft along the axis of the runway.

Instrument meteorological conditions (IMC): an aviation flight category that describes weather conditions that require pilots to fly primarily by reference to instruments.

Integrity: the ability of a system to provide timely warnings to users when it should not be used for navigation.

Localiser performance with vertical guidance (LPV) approach: similar to an instrument landing system (ILS) approach, it requires an SBAS-enabled GPS receiver.

Long range navigation system: a navigation system comprising an INS, an IRS or a GNSS capable of use in oceanic or remote airspace.

MSAS: multi-function transport satellite (MTSAT)—a satellite-based augmentation system.

Navigation specification: a set of aircraft and aircrew requirements needed to support PBN operations within a defined airspace.

Operator: the individual or entity responsible for flight operation of the aircraft. This may or may not be the registered operator for maintenance purposes.

Path terminator: a specific type of flight path along a segment of a route or a procedure along with a specific type of termination of that flight path, as assigned to all area navigation routes, SIDs, STARs and approach procedure segments in an aircraft navigation database.

Performance-based navigation: area navigation based on performance requirements for aircraft operating along an ATS route, on an instrument approach procedure, or in a designated airspace.

Positional dilution of precision (PDOP): a measure of how satellite geometry affects navigation and time accuracy. PDOP multiplies range errors and increases position errors.

Receiver autonomous integrity monitor: a form of ABAS whereby a GNSS receiver processor determines the integrity of the GNSS navigation signals using only GPS signals or GPS signals augmented with altitude (baro-aiding). This determination is achieved by a consistency check among redundant pseudo-range measurements. For the receiver to perform the RAIM function, at least one additional satellite needs to be available with the correct geometry, over and above the requisite GNSS satellites needed for the position estimation.

Reliability: the probability of performing a specified function without failure under given conditions for a specified time.

Restricted aerodrome: an aerodrome for which an operator restricts operations to aircraft with certain equipment, or flight crew with a certain combination of training, qualifications and experience, as set out in the operations manual.

RNAV specification: a navigation specification based on area navigation that does not include the requirement for on-board performance monitoring and alerting, designated by the prefix RNAV, e.g. RNAV 5, RNAV 1.

RNP specification: a navigation specification based on area navigation that includes the requirement for on-board performance monitoring and alerting, designated by the prefix RNP, e.g. RNP 4, RNP APCH.

Standard instrument arrival (STAR): a designated instrument flight rule (IFR) arrival route linking a significant point, normally on an ATS route, with a point from which a published instrument approach procedure can be commenced.

Standard instrument departure (SID): a designated instrument flight rule (IFR) departure route linking the aerodrome or a specified runway of the aerodrome with a specified significant point, normally on a designated ATS route, at which the en route phase of a flight commences.

Visual meteorological conditions (VMC): an aviation flight category in which visual flight rules (VFR) flight is permitted—that is, conditions in which pilots have sufficient visibility to fly the aircraft maintaining visual separation from terrain and other aircraft.

Rules and information

Please go to the CASA and Airservices Australia websites for current rules and further information on the topics covered in this Resource guide.


Aviation safety rules are contained in the:

  • Civil Aviation Act 1988
  • Civil Aviation Regulations 1988 (CAR)
  • Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998 (CASR) and associated legislative instruments.

Links to the act and regulations are available at rules and regulations.

Airservices Australia

The Aeronautical Information Package (AIP) can be downloaded from the Airservices Australia website.

It includes:

  • The AIP book
  • AIP supplements and aeronautical information circulars (AIC)
  • Departure and approach procedures (DAP)
  • Designated airspace handbook (DAH)
  • En route supplement Australia (ERSA).
Published date: 24 June 2021
Online version available at:
Back to top of page