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English language proficiency requirements
Learn about the rules relating to English language proficiency requirements.
Download a print-friendly version of the English language proficiency requirements information sheet.
Who should read this information sheet?
- Flight training operators
- Flight examiners
- English language proficiency assessors
- If you are applying for a pilot licence
- If you are applying for an Aircraft Radio Operator Certificate
- If you are training and testing for an Aircraft Radio Operator Certificate
What is aviation English Language Proficiency (ELP)?
Aviation ELP is a measure of someone’s ability to communicate in English using an aviation-relevant assessment process.
People who use aeronautical radios need to be able to communicate effectively in voice only (for radio), as well as in face-to-face situations like pre-flight briefings, training and interacting with other crew members. From a safety perspective, this communication needs to be in the language that is used locally by pilots and air traffic service providers.
In Australia and many other countries, the language is English.
Standards for language proficiency were established by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in 2008 and applied to flight crew licensing in Australia the same year.
If you hold an aviation ELP, you do not need to obtain a General English Language Proficiency (GELP) assessment.
What is GELP? Is it the same as aviation ELP?
GELP and aviation ELP are different.
A GELP assessment doesn’t cover any aviation technical terminology and it doesn’t meet the ICAO Annex 1 standard for aviation ELP. GELP is an assessment of a candidates' ability to communicate using general English i.e. using day-to-day English and does not include aviation specific terminology. Whereas aviation ELP includes a requirement to understand aviation terminology and satisfy the ICAO requirements for each of the six separate criteria. Unlike the aviation ELP which has six levels, there is only one level for the GELP.
You can obtain a GELP assessment in one of two ways. You can either undertake a formal GELP assessment or attend an interview and provide suitable evidence of your English language proficiency.
Suitable evidence includes school records, employment history, approved training courses or generally available language tests such as the International English Language Testing System (IELTS), the Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) or the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). See CASR Part 61 Manual of Standards (MOS), Schedule 2, Section 1 paragraph 5.1.1 for specific details.
Have the rules for English language proficiency changed?
Yes, CASA issued exemption CASA EX146/15 in October 15 to introduce changes to English language proficiency requirements. This exemption was remade in August 2018 as CASA EX111/18. These changes are now in effect.
The changes are expected to be incorporated into the flight crew licensing regulations (Parts 61, 64, 141 and 142) in the future.
What are the main changes?
- CASA can now approve people to conduct aviation ELP assessments and general ELP assessments, provided they complete the required training and evaluation provided by CASA. This will expand the number of assessors available.
- You can now go directly to an assessor who is approved to conduct aviation ELP assessments at levels 4, 5 and 6 (regulation 61.270 assessor) rather than having to be assessed by an examiner first. This will help make the process faster and less complex.
- You can apply for a recreational pilot licence flight test and a recreational pilot licence if you hold a current aviation ELP.
- You can fly solo if you hold a current GELP or an aviation ELP.
- You can apply for, and use, an Aircraft Radio Operator Certificate (AROC) if you meet either the GELP standard or hold a current aviation ELP assessment.
What is an aviation ELP assessment?
An aviation ELP assessment involves a candidate being tested on their ability to communicate in English in the aviation environment, where safety is paramount. The assessment involves two-way communications between the assessor and the candidate, and covers:
- grammatical structures and sentence patterns
- interactions while communicating.
Once you have been tested, your assessor will submit a report to CASA and your flight crew licensing records will be updated. Your ELP assessment record will be printed in the Conditions/Licence Remarks section of your flight crew licence document.
Do I need to have a current aviation ELP?
You will need to hold a current aviation ELP if you are:
- applying for a flight test for a private pilot licence, commercial pilot licence, multi-crew pilot licence, air transport pilot licence or flight engineer licence
- applying for a private pilot licence, commercial pilot licence, multi-crew pilot licence or air transport pilot licence
- applying for an Australian licence based on an overseas equivalent licence (this is not required if the overseas licence is endorsed with a current ICAO English language proficiency assessment)
- applying for an Australian licence based on an Australian Defence Force qualification
- applying for a recreational pilot licence flight radio endorsement
- exercising the privileges of a flight crew licence other than a recreational pilot licence (this doesn’t apply where your licence was granted on or before 4 March 2008 and is being used within Australia).
I already hold a licence. Do I need to undertake an aviation ELP assessment?
If you already hold a licence you will only need to undertake an aviation ELP assessment if you want to exercise the privileges of your licence overseas.
However, you will need to hold a current aviation ELP before you can apply for any flight test for a private pilot licence, commercial pilot licence, multi-crew pilot licence or air transport pilot licence.
What standard do I need to meet to pass an aviation ELP assessment?
The assessment standards are in the Part 61 MOS. There are six assessment levels for aviation ELP with level 6 (expert) being the highest.
If you are assessed at level 1, 2 or 3, you cannot get a licence or use a radio.
Level 4 and 5 assessments are acceptable for obtaining a licence and using radios, and expire after three and six years respectively.
A level 6 assessment doesn’t expire.
Who can conduct an aviation ELP assessment?
With minimal training, a person with an aviation ELP level 6 assessment can relatively easily assess another person as being expert or not. However, assessing a person as being at level 5 or below is much more difficult and requires expertise in linguistics.
A small number of specialists are approved to assess people at all levels. These assessors are approved under regulation 61.270 of the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations and are referred to as Specialist assessors in this information sheet.
The following people are authorised to conduct aviation ELP assessments:
- flight examiners who hold an English language assessment endorsement
- CASA delegates
- Specialist assessors
- people approved by CASA under the exemption.
This could include suitably qualified people such as teachers, especially where examiners are unavailable.
How do I get an aviation ELP assessment?
To get an aviation ELP assessment you can apply directly to a person who is authorised to conduct the assessment.
To find an assessor, talk to your local flight training school – they are familiar with who the assessors are in their local area.
What happens if I don’t pass my level 6 aviation ELP assessment?
If you don’t achieve the level 6 standard, you can apply to a Specialist assessor for an assessment. These assessors can test people at all levels including levels 4, 5 and 6.
If you meet the level 4 or 5 standard you will be assessed as having a current aviation ELP. However, a level 5 assessment is only valid for six years and a level 4 assessment is only valid for three years. Once these time periods have elapsed, you will need to do another assessment.
I am applying for a flight crew licence flight test or flight crew licence. What English language requirements do I need to meet?
You need to have a current level 4, 5 or 6 aviation ELP to apply for all licences and flight tests, except for recreational pilot licences and recreational pilot licence flight tests.
Do I need a GELP?
You will need a GELP if you don’t have a current aviation ELP and you are:
- applying for a flight test for a recreational pilot licence
- applying for a recreational pilot licence
- applying for an Aircraft Radio Operator Certificate (note this is different to the old rules where an aviation ELP was required).
How do I get a general ELP?
There are two ways you can meet the general ELP standard.
The first option is to demonstrate your general English language proficiency to a GELP assessor by providing evidence that you have:
- met the criteria for schooling or employment in an English-speaking environment as outlined in the Part 61 Manual of Standards
- passed one of the general English tests listed in the Part 61 MOS - such as IELTS, TOEIC or TOEFL
- completed a CASA-approved course of training in English language proficiency.
In these circumstances, an authorised person is:
- a CASA delegate
- a flight examiner with an ELP endorsement
- a person approved to conduct GELP assessments
- the head of operations of a Part 141 or Part 142 flight training organisation
- a grade 1 instructor authorised by the head of operations.
During this interview you will need to demonstrate that you have sufficient general English language proficiency for the authorisation you are applying for, and to ensure flight safety.
The second option is to attend a formal interview with a GELP assessor. This is similar to the aviation ELP assessment, but does not include technical aviation terminology. You can undertake this assessment with a flight examiner who holds an English language assessment endorsement, a CASA delegate, a GELP assessor or another person approved by CASA.
I am a student pilot doing my cross-country training. What ELP requirements do I need to meet?
Student pilots doing cross-country training need to meet the GELP requirement or have a current aviation ELP.
I am applying for a recreational pilot licence flight radio endorsement. What English language requirements do I need to meet?
You need to hold a current aviation ELP. This aviation ELP may be at Levels 4, 5 or 6.
I have a recreational pilot licence and am doing my cross-country training. What English language requirements do I need to meet?
If you are receiving training and you are authorised by an instructor then you may use the aircraft radio, and CASA strongly recommends you do, as long as you meet the GELP requirement.
To get the recreational pilot licence radio endorsement, you need to have a current aviation ELP.
Where will evidence of my English language proficiency be recorded?
Aviation ELP proficiency is recorded on your flight crew licence, under the Conditions/Licence Remarks section.
General ELP is recorded on a form and kept with your training records until it is time to apply for a flight test, when it is presented to the flight examiner. The record is then submitted to CASA with your application form for the licence.
If you are applying for an Aircraft Radio Operator Certificate (AROC), you will need to have either a GELP or an aviation ELP recorded with CASA before your AROC can be issued or you may submit your ELP form together with your AROC application form.
I don’t have a flight crew licence yet. Who keeps the record of my ELP proficiency?
Your flight training organisation will keep your ELP proficiency record in your training records. When it is time to apply for a recreational pilot licence flight test, the ELP record is presented to your flight examiner. The record is then submitted to CASA, together with your recreational pilot licence application form.
I did an ELP assessment overseas. Will CASA recognise this assessment?
CASA recognises assessments that are compliant with the ICAO Annex 1 system, and where the pilot’s licence is endorsed with a current aviation ELP. That means the licence shows English language proficiency, the level of assessment and the expiry date, if there is one.
There is no overseas equivalent to the general ELP.
I did an English language proficiency assessment before October 2015. Is it still valid?
Yes. The exemption originally issued by CASA in October 2015 and remade in August 2018 relaxes some of the requirements and broadens the range of people who can conduct assessments. If you did an English language proficiency assessment before October 2015 it remains valid and you do not need to undertake another one.
If your assessment was an AELP at level 4, then it is valid for three years and level 5 is valid for six years from the date of the assessment. AELP level 6 and GELP do not have an expiry date. If you were assessed at AELP level 4 or 5, then it is your responsibility to be re-assessed prior to the expiry date so that you can continue to exercise the privileges of your licence or AROC.
Want to know more?
View exemption CASA EX111/18 to read changes to the rules relating to English language proficiency assessments.
At a glance
View a diagram displaying the process for satisfying general ELP and aviation ELP requirements.