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|AAIM||Aircraft autonomous integrity monitor|
|ABAS||Aircraft-based augmentation system|
|ADC||Air data computer|
|ADS||Automatic dependent surveillance|
|ADS-B||Automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast|
|ADS-C||Automatic dependent surveillance-contract|
|AFCS||Automatic flight control system|
|AFM||Aircraft flight manual|
|AFMS||Aircraft flight manual supplement|
|AIP||Aeronautical Information Package|
|AIRAC||Aeronautical information regulation and control|
|AIS||Aeronautical information services|
|AMM||Aircraft maintenance manual|
|ASECNA||Agency for security of aerial navigation in Africa|
|ATC||Air traffic control|
|ATIS||Automatic terminal information service|
|ATS||Air traffic services|
|AWIB||Aerodrome weather information broadcast|
|Baro-VNAV||Barometric vertical navigation|
|BNN||Backup navigation network|
|B-RNAV||Basic area navigation|
|CAAP||Civil Aviation Advisory Publication|
|CAO||Civil Aviation Order|
|CASA||Civil Aviation Safety Authority|
|CDFA||Continuous descent final approach|
|CDI||Course deviation indicator|
|CDTI||Cockpit display of traffic information|
|CPDLC||Controller to pilot data link communication|
|DB||Database or data block|
|DME||Distance measuring equipment|
|DOD||US Department of Defense|
|EGNOS||European geostationary navigation overlay service|
|ERSA||En route supplement Australia|
|ESIR||Electronic safety incident report|
|FAA||Federal Aviation Administration|
|FAR||Federal aviation regulation|
|FDE||Fault detection and exclusion|
|FDR||Flight data record|
|FIR||Flight information region|
|FMS||Flight management system|
|FTE||Flight technical error|
|GBAS||Ground-based augmentation system|
|GEO||Geostationary Earth orbit|
|GLONASS||Global orbiting navigation satellite system|
|GNSS||Global navigation satellite systemk|
|GPS||Global positioning system|
|GRAS||Ground-based regional augmentation systems|
|IATA||International Air Transport Association|
|ICAO||International Civil Aviation Organization|
|IFR||Instrument flight rules|
|ILS||Instrument landing system|
|IMC||Instrument meteorological conditions|
|INS||Inertial navigation system|
|IREX||Instrument rating exam|
|IRS||Inertial reference system|
|ISA||International standard atmosphere|
|LAME||Licensed aircraft maintenance engineer|
|LNAV/VNAV||Lateral navigation with vertical navigation|
|LOI||Loss of integrity|
|LPV||Localiser performance with vertical guidance|
|LSALT||Lowest safe altitude|
|MNPS||Minimum navigation performance specification|
|NAIPS||National aeronautical information processing system|
|NATHLA||North Atlantic high level airspace|
|NRP||Navigation rationalisation project|
|NSE/PEE||Navigation system error/position estimation error|
|NVFR||Night visual flight rules|
|OEM||Original equipment manufacturer|
|PDE||Path definition error|
|P-RNAV||Precision area navigation|
|QZSS||Quasi-zenith satellite system|
|RAIM||Receiver autonomous integrity monitoring|
|RF||Constant radius to a fix|
|RNP||Required navigation performance|
|RNP APCH||RNP approach|
|RNP AR APCH||RNP AR approach|
|RNP AR DEP||RNP AR departure|
|RNZAF||Royal New Zealand Air Force|
|RPS||RAIM prediction service|
|RVSM||Reduced vertical separation minimum|
|SARPS||Standards and recommended practices|
|SBAS||Satellite-based augmentation system|
|SDCM||Refers to the Russian system of differential correction and monitoring|
|SID||Standard instrument departure|
|SMS||Safety management system|
|SSR||Secondary surveillance radar|
|STAR||Standard terminal arrival route|
|TCAS||Traffic collision alerting and avoidance system|
|TF||Track to a fix|
|TOAC||Time of arrival control|
|TSE||Total system error|
|TSO||Technical standard order|
|VFR||Visual flight rules|
|VHF||Very high frequency|
|VMC||Visual meteorological conditions|
|VOR||VHF omnidirectional range|
|WAAS||Wide area augmentation system|
|WGS||World geodetic survey|
Airspace: an area, route or procedure (the designated environment) in respect of which all, or any, of the following requirements must be satisfied, before an aircraft to which an order applies, is able to use it:
- navigation specifications (RNAV or RNP) applicable in the designated environment, for which the aircraft must hold an authorisation or approval
- aircraft navigation equipment requirements that the aircraft must satisfy
- aircraft navigation system functional and performance requirements that the aircraft must satisfy
- aircraft navigation equipment installation requirements that the aircraft must satisfy.
Almanac: a crude set of parameters used to approximate the orbits of satellites in the GNSS constellation.
Alternate means of navigation: the use of information from an area navigation system in lieu of that from conventional navigation aids and navigation equipment that is installed, operational and compatible with conventional navigation aids.
Augmentation systems: GNSS supplemental systems used to augment core satellite constellation signals to meet safety and reliability requirements. These systems may include ranging, integrity or differential elements in any combination. There are three categories of augmentation systems:
- aircraft-based augmentation systems (ABAS)
- ground-based augmentation systems (GBAS)
- satellite-based augmentation systems (SBAS).
Automatic direction finder (ADF): equipment on the aircraft that detects a non-directional beacon’s (NDB) signal and the NDB transmitter.
Availability: the proportion of time the system is to be used for navigation during which the aircraft gets reliable navigation information.
CNS/ATM: airspace capacity is determined by the combined capabilities of the communications, navigation, surveillance and air traffic management systems (CNS/ATM) in place. These include ground- and aircraft-based systems and requirements vary according to the airspace being considered.
Coarse/acquisition code (C/A code): a satellite-unique sequence of binary pulses transmitted by a GPS satellite and available to all users of the system. Also known as the civilian code.
Continuity of service: the capability of the system to perform its function without unscheduled interruptions during the intended operation.
Continuous descent final approach (CDFA): a technique, consistent with stabilised approach procedures, for flying the final approach segment of a non-precision approach (NPA) procedure as a constant descent, without level-off, from an altitude at, or above, the final approach fix altitude to a point approximately 15 m (50 ft) height above the landing runway threshold or the point where the flare manoeuvre should begin for the type of aircraft flown.
Ephemeris: software which generates the position of planets and their satellites, asteroids or comets.
ETSO: European technical standard order and/or FAA technical standard order.
GAGAN: refers to the Indian global positioning system (GPS) aided geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) augmented navigation.
Instrument landing system localiser (LOC): a system of horizontal guidance in the instrument landing system, which is used to guide aircraft along the axis of the runway.
Instrument meteorological conditions (IMC): an aviation flight category that describes weather conditions that require pilots to fly primarily by reference to instruments.
Integrity: the ability of a system to provide timely warnings to users when it should not be used for navigation.
Localiser performance with vertical guidance (LPV) approach: similar to an instrument landing system (ILS) approach, it requires an SBAS-enabled GPS receiver.
Long range navigation system: a navigation system comprising an INS, an IRS or a GNSS capable of use in oceanic or remote airspace.
MSAS: multi-function transport satellite (MTSAT)—a satellite-based augmentation system.
Navigation specification: a set of aircraft and aircrew requirements needed to support PBN operations within a defined airspace.
Operator: the individual or entity responsible for flight operation of the aircraft. This may or may not be the registered operator for maintenance purposes.
Path terminator: a specific type of flight path along a segment of a route or a procedure along with a specific type of termination of that flight path, as assigned to all area navigation routes, SIDs, STARs and approach procedure segments in an aircraft navigation database.
Performance-based navigation: area navigation based on performance requirements for aircraft operating along an ATS route, on an instrument approach procedure, or in a designated airspace.
Positional dilution of precision (PDOP): a measure of how satellite geometry affects navigation and time accuracy. PDOP multiplies range errors and increases position errors.
Receiver autonomous integrity monitor: a form of ABAS whereby a GNSS receiver processor determines the integrity of the GNSS navigation signals using only GPS signals or GPS signals augmented with altitude (baro-aiding). This determination is achieved by a consistency check among redundant pseudo-range measurements. For the receiver to perform the RAIM function, at least one additional satellite needs to be available with the correct geometry, over and above the requisite GNSS satellites needed for the position estimation.
Reliability: the probability of performing a specified function without failure under given conditions for a specified time.
Restricted aerodrome: an aerodrome for which an operator restricts operations to aircraft with certain equipment, or flight crew with a certain combination of training, qualifications and experience, as set out in the operations manual.
RNAV specification: a navigation specification based on area navigation that does not include the requirement for on-board performance monitoring and alerting, designated by the prefix RNAV, e.g. RNAV 5, RNAV 1.
RNP specification: a navigation specification based on area navigation that includes the requirement for on-board performance monitoring and alerting, designated by the prefix RNP, e.g. RNP 4, RNP APCH.
Standard instrument arrival (STAR): a designated instrument flight rule (IFR) arrival route linking a significant point, normally on an ATS route, with a point from which a published instrument approach procedure can be commenced.
Standard instrument departure (SID): a designated instrument flight rule (IFR) departure route linking the aerodrome or a specified runway of the aerodrome with a specified significant point, normally on a designated ATS route, at which the en route phase of a flight commences.
Visual meteorological conditions (VMC): an aviation flight category in which visual flight rules (VFR) flight is permitted—that is, conditions in which pilots have sufficient visibility to fly the aircraft maintaining visual separation from terrain and other aircraft.
Rules and information
Please go to the CASA and Airservices Australia websites for current rules and further information on the topics covered in this Resource guide.
Aviation safety rules are contained in the:
- Civil Aviation Act 1988
- Civil Aviation Regulations 1988 (CAR)
- Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998 (CASR) and associated legislative instruments.
Links to the act and regulations are available at rules and regulations.
The Aeronautical Information Package (AIP) can be downloaded from the Airservices Australia website.
- The AIP book
- AIP supplements and aeronautical information circulars (AIC)
- Departure and approach procedures (DAP)
- Designated airspace handbook (DAH)
- En route supplement Australia (ERSA)